The study is on the effect of industrial safety management on safety culture of employees. The specific objective of the study is to identify the relationship between industrial safety management and safety culture of employees, identify the hazards encountered by employees in the Nigeria manufacturing sector, to bring to the fore safety provisions for employees in the manufacturing industry, ascertain how orientation and training influence safety management in the manufacturing organizations, ascertain how safety issues were managed in the manufacturing industry. The population of the study was one thousand, two hundred and twenty (1220) obtained from the selected manufacturing firms in Lagos State of Nigeria. From this, a sample size of three hundred and one (301) was drawn, using Taro Yamane’s formula. The instruments for data collection were structured questionnaire and interview. The research design adopted was survey design. Data were presented in frequency tables, Z-test and Friedman Chi-square were used to test the hypotheses. The findings indicate that there were significant relationship between industrial safety management and safety culture of employees, physical and chemical hazards were the hazards encountered in the manufacturing industry, personal protective equipment is the safety provision for employees, orientation and training have significant influences on safety management implementation in the manufacturing industry, safety issues in the manufacturing industry were managed by making the environment hazard free to a great extent. The study recommends that safety policies and procedures should be reviewed whenever there are changes in operating conditions to make them more relevant. Management should recruit professionally competent and well motivated safety officers as opposed to quacks and touts. The Federal Government should enact and enforce laws that provide for stiffer penalties for employers of labour that do not implement safe work practices or record accidents in their operations.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In today’s business environment, major changes in the global economic and the revolutionary service organizations coupled with the subsequent changes in working life and in the responsibilities of employees, have created an urgent need to strengthen and adapt the tools and methods used to ensure that safety, health and environment are promoted and protected in manufacturing firms,(Doe, 2004:450).
Safety and quality continue to remain critical priorities in the context of improving productivity and efficiency in the manufacturing firms within Nigeria as well as overseas. In addition, the best practice of leading firms that are increasingly integrating safety, health and environment management into their overall management system, gives hope that the wider adoption of the approach will counter several negative trends, (Saurin, 2002: 335- 348). Safety, Health and Environment legislation as well as specific guideline, requires employers to provide a safe work place and to minimize exposure to hazardous substances in order to protect the employees health. The aim has always been to assume collective protection by controlling the release of the substance at the source, so that it does not get to the ambient air and thereafter, constitute health hazard (Evans, and Parkers, 2008 :12-1 7).In order to appreciate this and other dangers, we have to acquire the necessary knowledge of the environment we are working in, since it is of paramount importance for us to be safety conscious in our daily activities and especially in an industrial environment,(Kenyo, 1999:29).
Every year, thousands of lives are lost; people are maimed, or injured due to accidents caused by carelessness, thoughtlessness, or lack of concern. Essentially, safety is a matter of mutual concern and respect for yourself, your fellow worker, and the equipment you will be using. Without this foundation, a suit of amour would not be sufficient to protect you, (Harcourt, 1991: 155). Various literature available on the concept of safety environment points to the fact that man is greatly influenced in his by the safety environment in which he finds himself (Kadiri,2006:3).
In fact, psychologists have proved that safety environment is one, out of the two determinants of an individual personality (Onwueme, 1994: 32).
In addition, safety is first, and it overrides every other priority. Safety therefore, is the dominant characteristic and value of environmental management.
The ability to perform a safety within an environment will not be compromised. If a job cannot be performed safely it will not be performed, (Doe, 2006: 150).
Today the issue of safety at workplace and its environs is receiving serious attention world wide.There is a high rate of industrial accidents in the world today, and there are also associated health problems, absenteeism, poor performance and depression. Some jobs are very hazardous, and the law requires that every employer of labour should provide safety environment for employees doing hazardous work, (Fulton, 2008: 49). Every one prefers to work in a safe and healthy physical environment. If unhealthy, productivity will be affected. Employees are often sick and absent from work, sometimes leads to low moral. For the employer, and unsafe and unhealthy environment results not only to lost of productivity, but also increase costs in form of medical expenses and disability payments. The impact of safety environment affect the performance of employees either positively or negatively, (Kadiri, 2006:5)
The legal requirement of the new health and safety at work Act of 1974, was created for both employers and employees to bring a more acute awareness of the need to take care in avoiding accidents, injury and disease. The Act states “It shall be the duty of every employee while at work to take a reasonable care for the health and other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work”. For example wearing goggles, grinding, marking hot metal, keeping gang ways clear etc, (Krnyo,1997:31).
It is therefore, the duty of the employer to ensure that adequate protective equipment is available, and that adequate guarding of machines is maintained, (Kenyo, 1997: 30). To provide the working conditions which will provide the safety of employees at work, has became the major management concern today. Protective shields are introduced in the form of precaution, such as eye goggles, safety boots, hand gloves, clothing etc. Safety is important to every body, both as an individual, and as a member of a community. Individual and personal safety is of prime importance to you. The Boko Haram bomb scare at University of Ife and University of Ibadan led to stamped at the two Universities, (Daily Sun 16th September 2011: 5). The very fact that you are here today is a testimony to the fact that you and others care about safety.
Sometimes, it is a bit frightening to think of all the real dangers that a person must deal with throughout an ordinary day (George, 1999:15).
The machine age surrounds us with many safety hazards as millions of people are employed in extractive industry, construction and science work with the tools of power technology. Confronted with these hazards, it is necessary that
emphasis on safety begin in early childhood and continue through out a life time, (Geller, (2001:15). Safety provides the condition where the probability of accident is minimum. Every accident is the result of a set of unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. It is the cumulative effect of this set of conditions that acts over a period of time and an accident occurs (Daniel, 2006:34).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Due to none adherence of safety rules and regulations, and ignorance of the imminent dangers associated with manufacturing organizations, work related accidents and incidents are common, thereby negatively affecting the performance of workers.
In today’s business organization, the matter of workplace safety and health is receiving worldwide attention. But in a situation where there is lack of attention to safety management, the result has always been high rate of industrial accidents, which hampers economic development, since productivity/material out put will be low.
Thus the study focuses on the effect of industrial safety management on safety culture of employees of the Nigerian manufacturing sector.
1.3 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The specific objectives of the study include the following:
- To identify the relationship between industrial safety management and employee
- To identify the hazards encountered by employees in the Nigerian manufacturing Sector.
- To bring to the fore safety provisions for employees in the manufacturing Industry.
- To ascertain how orientation and training influence safety management in the manufacturing
- To ascertain how safety issues are managed in the manufacturing
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
With the above objectives in focus, the study seeks to find answers to the following questions:
- What is the relationship between industrial safety management and employee productivity?
- What are the hazards encountered by employees in the manufacturing industry?
- What are the safety provisions for employees in the manufacturing industry?
- How do orientation and training influence safety management in the manufacturing industry?
- How were safety issues managed in the manufacturing industry?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following alternate hypotheses are hereby formulated to guide the study.
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between industrial safety management and employee
- Hi: Physical and Chemical hazards are hazards encountered in the manufacturing
- Hi: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as safety helmets, safety belts, safety shoes, hand gloves are safety provisions for workers in the manufacturing
- Hi: Orientation and training have significant influence on safety management implementation in the manufacturing
- Hi: Safety issues in the manufacturing industry were managed by making the environment hazard free to a great
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be relevant to safety managers, government, industries and regulatory agencies, by exposing them to recent strategies in safety management. Such knowledge will enable them to become risk conscious.
The study will enable manufacturing industry to have effective safety management system to keep the business in a profitable manner.
Finally, this study will be relevant to future researchers, as it will serve as a guide for further studies.
1.7 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the concept of safety management, Theoretical Frame work, Empirical review, Safety environment, Global awareness of safety management, Workshop risk and implementation of suitable control, Influence of industrial safety management on productivity, Effect of orientation and training on industrial safety management, Job responsibilities of industrial, health and safety engineer, The application of ILO-OSHA standard, Implementation of occupational, Safety and Health, Effect of occupational Safety and Health management in the manufacturing industry, Identification of hazards and control, Performance measurement and feedback in safety management, Safety provisions and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and Economic benefits of safety management application.
Three manufacturing firms were selected from Lagos State for the purpose of this study. The firms were ERISCO., Nigerian Breweries Plc., and Juhel Nigeria Ltd. They were chosen considering their long term of existence as manufacturing firms.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The major constraints of the study are:
One of the reasons for restricting the area of this study to Lagos State was time, due to limited time of the study, some of the places where relevant information could have been collected were not visited.
Some places where relevant information could have been obtained were not visited, because of financial cost involved.
Attitude of the Respondents
Some of the respondents showed negative attitude towards the study, because there is no financial benefit attached to it.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Accident: Any unplanned event which may cause injury or damage. Any event which has or could have caused injury, damage or interruption of work, (Emenite: 2003).
Environment: Those elements, Institutions, systems, etc, whose activities and services are essential for the effective performance of the organization, but are not subject to the control of the organization (Onwuchekwa: 1993).
Hazard: Potential source of danger or threat to life (Bedford: 1996).
Management: The process of getting thing done effectively and efficiently, through and with other people, (Robins and Decenzo: 2005).
Safety: All those rules and regulations relating to the safety of firms operations, product and workers, (Kadiri: 2006).
Toxic Substances: They are substances that are toxic which are being released from industries, (Emenite: 2003).