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Effect of Texting and Shortcut Spelling on Academic Achievements of Secondary School Students

TITLE PAGE                                                                  




Table of Content

List of Tables



1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of the problem

1.3     Objective of the study

1.4     Research question

1.5     Significance of the study

1.6     Scope of the study

1.7 Limitation of the study

1.8 Definition of terms


2.1     Conceptual framework’

2.2     Theoretical Framework


3.1     Introduction

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Population of the study

3.4     Sample size determination

3.5     Sample size selection technique and procedure

3.6     Research Instrument and Administration

3.7     Method of data collection

3.8     Method of data analysis

3.9     Validity of the Study

3.10   Reliability of the study

3.11   Ethical Consideration


4.1     Data Presentation

4.2     Research Hypothesis


5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation






This study was on effect of texting and shortcut spelling on academic achievement of secondary school students. Three objectives were raised which included; To describe the effects of texting on formal academic, to explore various factors that are involved in influencing the students and to find various remedies to overcome this problem. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected secondary school in Uyo. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).



Chapter one


1.1Background of the study

Modern technological revolutions of the present day are not less than a wonder. Today, people are living in modern world and the technology surrounds us everywhere. The modern technology is growing quickly, through technology people are easily in touch with long distance communication, as it is safe and reliable. Text messaging (TM) can commonly be seen to have some kind of deviated and irregular shortening and abbreviating of words, phrases and even the sentences. It exhibits a short language of communication in texting in everyday life such as short message service (SMS), instant messages (IM) and so on. In this kind of communication, the language does not follow any kind of proper pattern, standard form, correct spellings and correct syntax structure these are followed by people while communicating. Therefore, the technology has influenced on people in everyday life who practice so much use of SMS, IM and TM. Moreover, the world is technologized with modern smart equipment, text message service is considered as one of the smartest, cheapest easiest ways of communication. The most important features of texting are saving money, time, and text space. The language of computer mediated communication (CMC) is assumed. In present time, SMS is main source of updating people of things happing around them. It has major role in business and other fields also. Youngster used SMS as source of chatting to share their ideas with peers, family, colleague etc. which helps in increasing their knowledge and make them aware and updated of world affairs. SMS language has made a great damage to the writing skills of the students. It is greatly affecting the structure of sentence, vocabulary and spellings of the students. The people are using SMS language in their formal e-mails, letters, speeches, and their examinations instead of the standard formal writing which are causing a great problem. Sometimes these shortened and abbreviated words are difficult to comprehend in formal situation. SMS language is affecting the students’ ability of memorizing correct and actual forms of spelling. It creates miss-understanding and confusion in communication to students’ by spoiling the spelling and as well as grammar. It lacks the ability of user to use words appropriately as well as accurately in the context which is the main cause of not expressing one’s self meaningfully through writing.

The language is used in SMS texting and it has different ways from the standard language for communication. SMS language includes the transformation of the lexeme. The writer transforms the lexical items of the language by shorting them with the method including contractions, clipping and abbreviations. It is observed that most of the short textisms term are used by people in SMS language is compared to any other means of communication like CMC or IM (Crystal, 2008).

For example:

  • SWYP stands for So what’s your problem
  • LOL stands for laugh of laughter
  • OMG stands for Oh My GOD
  • ‘How are you’ is shorted as in SMS language as ‘hw r u’ However, from user to user these shorting words are varied from place to place

For example:

  • ‘Wait’ can be shortened as ‘W8’ or ‘wa8’
  • ‘Thanks’ can be shortened as ‘thnks’ or ‘thnkz’ or ‘tnx’
  • ‘Hate’ can be shortened as ‘Ha8’ or ‘h8’
  • ‘Anyone’ can be shortened as ‘any1’ or ‘ne1’


Statement of the problem

Text Messaging System or Short Message System (SMS) allows users to send and receive short messages from handheld, digital mobile phones or from a computer to a mobile phone, giving almost instant access to others and to connect to the  same  service. Young people in particular, have taken to the SMS technology and are  adapting and inventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages which has implications for communications and language use. This  is because they are more interested in getting their messages across and becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation

Carlson (2004) asserted that language shortcuts and colloquial language are ‘reinforcing bad habits in writing’ (p.1) Students seem to have  become  more  dependent on the language shortcuts (SMS) which may have adverse consequences on the students’ formal writing skills.
The problem is that texting is replacing talking among teens Lindley, (2008), yet their primary form of communication in the classroom is oral communication and formal writing. In addition, texting is being blamed for hampering students’ formal writing skills. Plester, Wood, and Bell (2008) claimed texting which is more conversationally based is appearing in standard written English and that “this concern, often cited in the media, is based on anecdotes and reported incidents of text language used in schoolwork”. Rosen, Chang, Erwin, Carrier, and Cheever (2010) added that

“educators and the media have decried the use of these shortcuts, suggesting that they are causing youth to lose the ability to write acceptable English prose”.

Vosloo (2009) agreed that “for a number of years teachers and parents have blamed texting for two ills: the corruption of language and the degradation in  spelling of youths’ writing” .

At this time, only a small number of studies have been focused on the impact that high level of text messaging may have on teenagers, and even fewer studies have been focused on their ramifications on formal writing in an educational setting. Simply put, further research is needed to reveal the impact that high levels of text messaging may have on teenagers and young adults when it comes to formal writing in the high school and college classroom. This study thus seeks to examine the impact of the language of short messaging service on the written essays of secondary school  students. It will look at the content, organization, mechanical accuracy and the expression component of the students’ essay writing.

Research Objectives

  • To describe the effects of texting on formal academic
  • To explore various factors that are involved in influencing the students
  • To find various remedies to overcome this problem.

Research hypotheses

H0: there are no effects of texting on formal academic.

H1: there are effects of texting on formal academic.

H02: there are no factors that are involved in influencing the students’

H2: there are factors that are involved in influencing the students’


Significance of the Research

This research has academic as well as some practical implications. In this research, it is beneficial for academics, especially for teachers so that it can be used to overcome the drawbacks that are seen in students’ formal writing. It will be useful to spread an awareness to overcome this problem and remedies can be done to solve it.

Delimitations of the Study

In this study of research, the researcher is delimited the study on effects of texting on students’ spelling in academic writing


 The significance of the study deals with the need for the study and its possible application and utilization.

This study is significant to the subject in the following ways:
It addresses the question that so many teachers, parents, and students have about the potential relationship(s) between SMS technology  and  students’ formal writing skills in the classroom.

The study may lead educators and students to a greater understanding of how text Messaging may     relate    to    a    teenager’s    writing     development     and    ability to effectively present him or herself through writing.
The study may also provide administrative insight as to how text  messaging  should be managed by the school; e.g. should it be encouraged or banned from the classroom?

To curriculum planners, the study is expected to give an understanding of how SMS language affects students’ writing hence, they will see if there is need to adjust the curriculum to factor in the technological changes that may improve their deficient writing skills.

This work gives writers an insight into SMS language and its impact on written English. Embarking on this, they are motivated to produce more works on the impact  of SMS language on students’ writing. The study also serves as a resource material for others who want to carry out research in related field.


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