Effective ways of erosion control on high way construction
This study was on effective ways of erosion control on high way construction. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected construction companies in Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made site engineers, supervisors, senior staff and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
1.1Background of the study
Each year, large amounts of soil are eroded from highway sites, especially from highways under construction. It usually is rather difficult to control erosion at highway construction sites because of the extent of disturbed soil and the difficulty of controlling water runoff. Though data on the overall rates of sediment transported to streams at these sites limited, erosion rates from them are typically 10 to 20 times the rates from agricultural land, some reports suggest erosion rates up to 100 times as high (e.g., Goldman et al., 1986). The eroded soil incurs severe economic costs (e.g., excavation or dredging, soil replacement, highway consolidation) and environmental impacts (e.g., deterioration of water quality in the watershed and streamside vegetation, removal of important topsoil constituents). Consequently, erosion prevention and sedimentation control are major factors in the design, construction and maintenance of highways. Irrespective of project size and erosion-mitigation method, selection of the optimum erosion control measures for a specific situation needs to be facilitated using a comprehensive, yet straightforward plan. Besides being technically feasible, quick, and economic, the current approach in implementing an erosion control project includes compliance requirements with federal, state, and local regulations. Protecting water quality is of paramount concern in this regard. The new Phase II rules from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning storm-water erosion and sediment control practices are scheduled to be in place by the end of 2002.
Efficient planning for erosion control requires a comprehensive consideration of site topography, drainage pattern, rainfall data, soil data, existing vegetation, off-site features (streams, lakes, buildings), as well as available types and operational characteristics of the erosion control methods. These varied and complex considerations, commonly limit the number of problems encountered in finding feasible and economic methods to minimize erosion. Several disciplines of science and engineering are required to address erosion problems. Highway designers, project engineers, and maintenance personnel often need the advice of hydrologists, hydraulic engineers, soil engineers, soil scientists, agronomists, landscape architects, and other specialists to minimize erosion problems. Based on this background the researcher wants to investigate the effective ways of erosion on high way construction
Statement of the study
Most of the interest displayed over water flowing in river systems is related to development of facilities to control it and put it to use after it enters larger tributaries and main streams. Unfortunately, there has been much less concern about controlling water and the soil erosion it can produce where it is most susceptible to management control, namely, where it first falls on the land. Experience in many places has shown that a change in the disposition of only a small portion of the water received on the land may greatly affect the manner in which it is delivered as stream flow. The behavior of water and whether it is beneficial or harmful depends, in great measure, upon the condition and the uses of the lands from which it drains. The placement of a highway in land that is susceptible to erosion can be expected, without doubt, to cause erosion unless precautionary measures are taken. The general nature of the effects of highways on erosion and sedimentation are known. and include the following kinds of 8 problems: 1) Development of unsightly cuts and fills that have been riddled by uncontrolled erosion and gullying; 2) undermining and collapse of fills, structures, and hillsides; 3) unsightly deposition of sediment in streams, channels, structures, ponds, reservoirs, and along highway rights-of-way; 4) destruction of aquatic environments in nearby lakes, streams, and reservoirs caused by erosion and/or deposition of sediment; 5) destruction of vegetation by burying or gullying.
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the effective ways of controlling erosion on high way construction
- To ascertain the kind of erosion that destroy high way construction
- To ascertain the appropriate methods for preventing erosion being used at each site, during and after construction
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there are no effective ways of controlling erosion on high way construction
H1: there are effective ways of controlling erosion on high way construction.
H02: there is no kind of erosion that destroy high way construction.
H2: there is kind of erosion that destroy high way construction
Significance of the study
The study will be very significant to students and construction companies. The study will give a clear insight on the effective ways of erosion control on high way construction. The study will give measures to control erosion on high way construction. The study will also serve as reference to other researcher that will embark on the related topic
Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study covers effective ways of erosion control on high way construction. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Erosion: In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth’s crust, and then transports it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Construction: The definition of construction is the process of making something, the occupation of building or the way that something is put together. An example of construction is the art of making homes and businesses. An example of construction is how a sentence is put together using words
Erosion control: Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction