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Effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid19 era

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

Abstract

This study was on Effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid-19 era. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selects secondary school in Uyo. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, teachers, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1Background of the study

Chemistry is a unique and interesting subject. However, chemistry is considered as a difficult subject among students (Chu & Hong, 2010). This is due to a misunderstanding of content derived from various sources. As a result, curriculum for the chemistry of secondary school was designed to give students the opportunity to be actively involved in the process of learning knowledge, scientific skills, and technology literacy. This enables students to solve and decide their daily life problems based on scientific attitudes and noble values. It is also intended to develop a dynamic and viable community in line with the latest scientific information and technologies.

Information  Communication  and  Technology (ICT) referred to tactic for collecting, collating, organizing, manipulating and drawing  of  assumption  on  data.  It  is  also  an exchange  of  information  amid  of  people from one location to another. Ede and Ariyo (2014)  and  Fabunmi  (2012)  explained  that ICT have become increasingly relevant tools to  accelerate  social,  economic  and  educational  sectors.  Rosandich (2014) stated  that ICT serves as the engine that is rotating the wheel of today’s economy,  government and education. The influence of ICT on teaching and  learning  is  enormous.  Nwoke  and Akukwe  (2012)  stressed  that  ICT  gives learners  unique  opportunities  to  learn individually according  to  their own  level of understanding and provides for them instant feedback on their intellectual act.   Rienhoff, Hopwood,  Fischer,  Strauss,  Baker  and Schorer  (2014)  and  Yang  and  Heh  (2007) concluded that positive effectiveness of  ICT instruction as unquantifiable.

Hettiarachchi  and  Wickramasinghe (2016)  expressed  that  Information  Technology   approach  to instructions, has brought  a  great  shift  from  teacher  centered which is traditional learning  methodology to learner  centered  method  of  teaching  especially sciences. Chemistry is known to be a branch of science that processed the  fundamental  ingredients  to  technology  dealing directly with both practical and experimental understanding  of  basic  natural  phenomena (Arokoyu & Ugonwa 2012). It was said that chemistry contributed greatly to value of life and  nation  building  which  cannot  be  over emphasized in all aspects (Olibie,  Ezoem & Ekene, 2014).

Njoku (2007) noted that secondary  and  tertiary  chemistry  students  also exhibits poor and deplorable results over the years.  Copriady  (2014) stated  that teaching chemistry  in  secondary  schools  is  often linked  with  many  challenges  of  which teachers’ competency is inclusive.  The study of Schutt and Linegar (2013) also Omorogbe and Celestine (2013) mentioned the abstract nature of the chemistry concepts and topics in  the  curriculum  as  another  strong  factor. Also,  poor  methodology  (Machina,  2012). Lack  of  motivation  is  also  identified  as another  crucial  factor  of  poor  learners outcome in  sciences (Glynn, Taasoobshirazi & Brickman, 2009) and also (Herga, Čagran &  Dinevski,  2016)

In  essence,  Gambari  and  Yusuf  (2014) explained  that  virtual  learning  is  an  innovative techniques of instruction  that  is very useful for teaching  and learning of sciences especially  chemistry.  French  (2014)  concluded that learning  is more of experiments in the scope of virtual environment and it is more  valuable  than  in  real  laboratories. However, virtual learning may be used and at same times  be preferred for alternative  and supportive for chemistry instruction. In  this  regards,  researches  have  examined the meaning of virtual learning, many scholars  have  discussed  virtual  learning  in different perspective. For instance, Unanma, Abugu,  Dike  and  Umeobika  (2013) explained that virtual learning is a reality and arena  that  offers  repeatable,  safe  and conducive environment for skills that are not possible  to  undergoes  in  real-world.  The study  of  Jeschke,  Richter  and  Zorn  (2010) clarified virtual laboratories as  a stimulants, provider  also  offers  the  students  with significant  practical  experiences.  Also,  Abeldina,  Moldumarova,  Abeldina  and Moldumarova (2015) submitted that a virtual  learning environment  consists of a designed software  and  a  system  of  instruction  for   educational  establishment  and  organisation monitored under  the auspices of  an  experts  which creates communication border for the teachers  and  as  well  for  students  in facilitating learning process. Jasieński (2014) concluded  that  a  virtual  classroom  can duplicate  a  normal classroom  of  brick  and mortar for instructional purposes.

Moreover, virtual learning environment is learning that is acquired through interaction with digitally devices for delivery of learning content.  It is also  the  learning  that  carried  out  via integration  of  electronic  dialogue  for example  activities  on  web  platforms (Bouchard,  2011)  and  (Tirp,  Steingröver, Wattie,  Baker  &  Schorer,  2015).  For  this reason,  Hettiarachchi  and  Wickramasinghe (2016)  explicated  that  virtual  learning environment  is  an  online  learning  podium that allows instructors to share instructional content with both male  and female students through  the  web,  example  of  these  are  WebCT,  Moodle  and Blackboard. Based on this background the researcher wants to investigate effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid-19 era

Statement of the problem

Many  studies  have  revealed  positive impact  of  virtual  learning  to  students.  For example,  the  study  of  Rosandich  (2014) researched  on  the  transferring  of  a  motor skill  within  and  between  basketball  and darts.  Also,  Unanma,  Abugu,  Dike,  and Umeobika (2013) worked on virtual realities in  learning  environment  that  stimulates efficiency  and  difference  in training.  More so,  Abeldina,  Moldumarova,  Abeldina,  and Moldumarova  (2015)  examined  the  virtual environment for teaching science subjects in schools. Yang, and Heh, (2007) looked at the efficacy  of  the  virtual  chemistry laboratory (VCL)  on  the  scientific  progression,  they concluded  that  the  learners  within  the experimental  setting  significantly  achieve more  than  the  others  in  the  scope  of traditional  laboratory  activities

In  essence,  Gambari  and  Yusuf  (2014) explained  that  virtual  learning  is  an  innovative techniques of instruction  that  is very useful for teaching  and learning of sciences especially  chemistry.  French  (2014)  concluded that learning  is more of experiments in the scope of virtual environment and it is more  valuable  than  in  real  laboratories. However, virtual learning may be used and at same times  be preferred for alternative  and supportive for chemistry instruction

Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of student on chemistry
  2. To ascertain the challenges of virtual learning in secondary school
  3. To ascertain how effective is virtual learning in teaching of chemistry in secondary school

Research hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: there is no relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of student on chemistry

H1: there is relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of student on chemistry

H02: there are no challenges of virtual learning in secondary school

H2: there are challenges of virtual learning in secondary school

Significance of the study

The study will give a clear insight on the effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid-19 era. The study will be significant to students, teachers and policy makers. It will also serve as a reference to other researcher that will embark on the related topic

Scope and limitation of the study

The scope of the study covers \effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid-19 era.

The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

Virtual learning: Virtual learning is a learning experience that is enhanced through utilizing computers and/or the internet both outside and inside the facilities of the educational organization. The instruction most commonly takes place in an online environment.

Chemistry: the branch of science concerned with the substances of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances

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