Effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid19 era
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study was on Effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid-19 era. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selects secondary school in Uyo. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, teachers, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
1.1Background of the study
Chemistry is a unique and interesting subject. However, chemistry is considered as a difficult subject among students (Chu & Hong, 2010). This is due to a misunderstanding of content derived from various sources. As a result, curriculum for the chemistry of secondary school was designed to give students the opportunity to be actively involved in the process of learning knowledge, scientific skills, and technology literacy. This enables students to solve and decide their daily life problems based on scientific attitudes and noble values. It is also intended to develop a dynamic and viable community in line with the latest scientific information and technologies.
Information Communication and Technology (ICT) referred to tactic for collecting, collating, organizing, manipulating and drawing of assumption on data. It is also an exchange of information amid of people from one location to another. Ede and Ariyo (2014) and Fabunmi (2012) explained that ICT have become increasingly relevant tools to accelerate social, economic and educational sectors. Rosandich (2014) stated that ICT serves as the engine that is rotating the wheel of today’s economy, government and education. The influence of ICT on teaching and learning is enormous. Nwoke and Akukwe (2012) stressed that ICT gives learners unique opportunities to learn individually according to their own level of understanding and provides for them instant feedback on their intellectual act. Rienhoff, Hopwood, Fischer, Strauss, Baker and Schorer (2014) and Yang and Heh (2007) concluded that positive effectiveness of ICT instruction as unquantifiable.
Hettiarachchi and Wickramasinghe (2016) expressed that Information Technology approach to instructions, has brought a great shift from teacher centered which is traditional learning methodology to learner centered method of teaching especially sciences. Chemistry is known to be a branch of science that processed the fundamental ingredients to technology dealing directly with both practical and experimental understanding of basic natural phenomena (Arokoyu & Ugonwa 2012). It was said that chemistry contributed greatly to value of life and nation building which cannot be over emphasized in all aspects (Olibie, Ezoem & Ekene, 2014).
Njoku (2007) noted that secondary and tertiary chemistry students also exhibits poor and deplorable results over the years. Copriady (2014) stated that teaching chemistry in secondary schools is often linked with many challenges of which teachers’ competency is inclusive. The study of Schutt and Linegar (2013) also Omorogbe and Celestine (2013) mentioned the abstract nature of the chemistry concepts and topics in the curriculum as another strong factor. Also, poor methodology (Machina, 2012). Lack of motivation is also identified as another crucial factor of poor learners outcome in sciences (Glynn, Taasoobshirazi & Brickman, 2009) and also (Herga, Čagran & Dinevski, 2016)
In essence, Gambari and Yusuf (2014) explained that virtual learning is an innovative techniques of instruction that is very useful for teaching and learning of sciences especially chemistry. French (2014) concluded that learning is more of experiments in the scope of virtual environment and it is more valuable than in real laboratories. However, virtual learning may be used and at same times be preferred for alternative and supportive for chemistry instruction. In this regards, researches have examined the meaning of virtual learning, many scholars have discussed virtual learning in different perspective. For instance, Unanma, Abugu, Dike and Umeobika (2013) explained that virtual learning is a reality and arena that offers repeatable, safe and conducive environment for skills that are not possible to undergoes in real-world. The study of Jeschke, Richter and Zorn (2010) clarified virtual laboratories as a stimulants, provider also offers the students with significant practical experiences. Also, Abeldina, Moldumarova, Abeldina and Moldumarova (2015) submitted that a virtual learning environment consists of a designed software and a system of instruction for educational establishment and organisation monitored under the auspices of an experts which creates communication border for the teachers and as well for students in facilitating learning process. Jasieński (2014) concluded that a virtual classroom can duplicate a normal classroom of brick and mortar for instructional purposes.
Moreover, virtual learning environment is learning that is acquired through interaction with digitally devices for delivery of learning content. It is also the learning that carried out via integration of electronic dialogue for example activities on web platforms (Bouchard, 2011) and (Tirp, Steingröver, Wattie, Baker & Schorer, 2015). For this reason, Hettiarachchi and Wickramasinghe (2016) explicated that virtual learning environment is an online learning podium that allows instructors to share instructional content with both male and female students through the web, example of these are WebCT, Moodle and Blackboard. Based on this background the researcher wants to investigate effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid-19 era
Statement of the problem
Many studies have revealed positive impact of virtual learning to students. For example, the study of Rosandich (2014) researched on the transferring of a motor skill within and between basketball and darts. Also, Unanma, Abugu, Dike, and Umeobika (2013) worked on virtual realities in learning environment that stimulates efficiency and difference in training. More so, Abeldina, Moldumarova, Abeldina, and Moldumarova (2015) examined the virtual environment for teaching science subjects in schools. Yang, and Heh, (2007) looked at the efficacy of the virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL) on the scientific progression, they concluded that the learners within the experimental setting significantly achieve more than the others in the scope of traditional laboratory activities
In essence, Gambari and Yusuf (2014) explained that virtual learning is an innovative techniques of instruction that is very useful for teaching and learning of sciences especially chemistry. French (2014) concluded that learning is more of experiments in the scope of virtual environment and it is more valuable than in real laboratories. However, virtual learning may be used and at same times be preferred for alternative and supportive for chemistry instruction
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of student on chemistry
- To ascertain the challenges of virtual learning in secondary school
- To ascertain how effective is virtual learning in teaching of chemistry in secondary school
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of student on chemistry
H1: there is relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of student on chemistry
H02: there are no challenges of virtual learning in secondary school
H2: there are challenges of virtual learning in secondary school
Significance of the study
The study will give a clear insight on the effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid-19 era. The study will be significant to students, teachers and policy makers. It will also serve as a reference to other researcher that will embark on the related topic
Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study covers \effectiveness of virtual learning on secondary school chemistry students acquisition of 21st century skill in covid-19 era.
The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Virtual learning: Virtual learning is a learning experience that is enhanced through utilizing computers and/or the internet both outside and inside the facilities of the educational organization. The instruction most commonly takes place in an online environment.
Chemistry: the branch of science concerned with the substances of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances