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Effects of maternal attributes on malnutrition among pregnant women in sulaja Niger state


This study was on effects of maternal attributes on malnutrition among pregnant women in sulaja Niger state.  The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected health centers in Sulaja, Niger state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made doctors, nurses, lab technician and junior officers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.

Chapter one


  • Background of the study

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines malnutrition as ‘the cellular imbalance between the supply of nutrients and energy and the body’s demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions’. Contrary to the common use, the term malnutrition refers not only to deficiency states but also to excess and imbalance in the intake of calories, proteins and/or other nutrients

Today, nearly one in three persons globally suffers from at least one form of malnutrition. Women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to chronic energy deficiency and other malnutrition. Globally, approximately 13% of women were estimated to be undernourished. Maternal and child malnutrition is the underlying cause of 3.5 million deaths. The main nutritional issues impacting pregnant women were protein and energy under nutrition and deficiencies of micronutrients, such as iron, folate, calcium, vitamin D and vitamin A. Globally, 38% of all pregnant women suffered from anemia and contributing for 20% of maternal mortality. Pregnancy increases the risk of iron deficiency anemia as there is an increase in maternal iron requirements. Around 70% risk of anemia can be reduced through iron supplementation during pregnancy.

Malnutrition is known to increase the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, including obstructed labor, premature or low-birth-weight (LBW) babies and postpartum hemorrhage. Severe anemia during pregnancy is associated with increased maternal mortality. Besides, malnutrition among mothers has an intergenerational effect with repeating cycles of malnutrition and poverty in the long run. Previous studies have established that malnourished pregnant women are at increased risk of having LBW infants. The link between LBW and poor health and nutritional outcomes later in life is also well established, with several studies reporting the association of LBW with malnutrition, poor growth and development, and increased morbidity and mortality in children. Besides, poor nutrition during pregnancy, especially deficiencies of certain vitamins and minerals, have been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and the infant. Severe iron-deficiency anemia has been linked to preterm labor, poor anthropometric measures and birth asphyxia. Studies on the impact of maternal malnutrition during lactation are rare. Several reports suggested a possible association of malnutrition among lactating mothers with production of smaller quantities of breast milk, and low levels of B vitamins, vitamin A and essential fatty acids in breast milk.

Maternal malnutrition is caused by complex interaction of a multitude of factors. Severe illness, breastfeeding and having several children below 2 years of age are negatively associated with maternal nutritional status, while higher maternal age and socio-economic status, and household food security have positive effect. In addition, social factors, such as marital status, education, and income also have influence. Based on this background the researcher wants to investigate effects of maternal attributes on malnutrition among pregnant women.

Statement of the problem

These individual studies also stated factors like maternal age, income, residence, marital status, educational status, women decision, substance abuse, water source, toilet possession, family size, dietary diversity, number of meal, dietary advice, family planning, pregnancy intention, antenatal care follow up, parity, gestational age, any illness and iron supplementation as a potential associated factors with malnutrition during pregnancy even though inconsistent findings were recorded. This study is carryout for the pool burden of malnutrition among pregnant women in Suleja, Niger state

Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the causes of malnutrition among pregnant women in Sulaja, Niger state
  2. To ascertain the maternal attribute on malnutrition among pregnant women in Sulaja, Niger state
  3. To ascertain the effect of malnutrition on pregnant women in Sulaja, Niger state

Research hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0there are no causes of malnutrition among pregnant women in Sulaja, Niger state

H1: there are causes of malnutrition among pregnant women in Sulaja, Niger state

H02:  there is no effect of malnutrition on pregnant women in Sulaja, Niger state

H2: there is effect of malnutrition on pregnant women in Sulaja, Niger state

Significance of the study

It is believed that at the completion of the study, findings will be of benefit to the ministry of health and pregnant women. The study will help pregnant women to make good dietary choice. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public

Scope and limitation of the study

The scope of the study covers effects of maternal attributes on malnutrition among pregnant women in sulaja Niger state. In the course of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.



DIETARY: A dietary supplement is either intended to provide nutrients in order to increase the quantity of dietary supplements should not be used to treat any disease or as preventive healthcare. An exception to this recommendation is the appropriate.

PREGNANT WOMEN: Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology.

ATTENDING: Be present at (an event, meeting, or function).

HEALTHCARE: Health care or Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical.


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Disclaimer: This PDF Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research.

You are allowed to use the original PDF Research Material Guide you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the project topic.

2. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced).

3. For PROPER paraphrasing ( see your school definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase).

4. Direct citing ( if referenced properly).

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