Effects of Residential Segregation in Bukuru Jos South Lga, Plateau State
The middle belt and Northern Nigerian r has been for time immemorial characterised by one form of residential segregation or the other. This segregation could be on the bases of religious, educational, income and occupation, all these have contributed to shaping the nature of towns and cities in Northern Nigeria. This study examines the spatial pattern of residential segregation in Bukuru Jos South, Nigeria and the objectives are to analyse the factors influencing residential segregation, assess the effects of residential segregation and to map and identify the patterns of residential segregation in the study area. In conduct of the study data was sourced through both primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire was the tool for primary data collection. Purposive sampling technique was adopted in selecting 10 morphological units within Bukuru Jos South. Data for the study were analysed within the SPSS environment using descriptive statistics mostly frequencies and percentages. Major finding of the study reveals that Bukuru Jos South is segregated on socio-cultural factors. Religion accounts for the highest form of segregation (55%), Economic consideration (26%) and security (12%) were adjudged the other reasons for residential segregation in the area of study.
1.1 Background to the study
Residential segregation is a widely researched urban phenomenon in both developed and developing countries. The discourse exercise in this area has led to a prolific body of literature including the development of scientific measures of segregation (K‟Akumu and Olima, 2007). Residential segregation is a form of separation that sorts population groups into various neighbourhood context and shapes the living environment and social space at the neighbourhood level. The residential neighbourhoods are often classified and segregated based on a variety of peculiarities.
Residential segregation has been defined in different ways by several authors in various disciplines. For instance, Kemper (2000) defines residential segregation as the spatial separation of population sub-groups within a given geographical area such as a large city. Such sub-groups can be formally defined in terms of age, occupation, income, place of birth, ethnic group or some other measures like race or religion. In a similar definition by Cundiff and Hudson (2002) residential segregation is seen as the spatial concentration of population groups. In line with this, Acevedo-Garcia et al (2003) reported that available evidence indicates that segregation by race/ethnicity is stronger than segregation by income.
However, Landrine and Corral (2009) referred to residential segregation as the geographical separation of whites from ethnic minorities in residential areas. Williams and Collins (2001) define residential segregation as the physical separation of the races in residential contexts.
Aliyu, Salihu, Rozilla and Mohammad (2012) opined that, it is the process where two or more communities that formerly lived together separate because of some factors. This could be because of either religious or ethnic reasons.
In the United States, for instance, the segregation of African-Americans is distinctive.
Although most immigrant groups have experienced some residential segregation in the United States, no immigrant group has ever lived under higher levels of segregation that currently exist in the African-American population. In the early 20th century, immigrant enclaves have been never homogeneous to one immigrant group. In most immigrant ghettos, the ethnic immigrant group after which the enclave was named did not constitute a majority of the population of that area, and most members of European ethnic groups did not live in immigrant enclaves.
In Africa, the segregation of the natives from the Europeans came about through colonisation. Segregation was said to be suggested in 1897 (as a general health measure) when mosquitoes were discovered to cause malaria (Gale 1980). However, it was not adopted until 1908 due to the outbreak of the plague in Accra (Ghana). A disease reported to have claimed the lives of six million people in India between 1898 and 1907. The Colonial Office thus saw the introduction of the disease as a threat; hence, in 1910 it gave them more grounds to enforce segregation. Gale (1980) however opined that there were other important factors that made segregation popular in Northern Nigeria. The people in that region had no prior contact with the Europeans thus there were no merchants or professionals who could speak English. Social contact was so difficult thus leading to a more formal and distant type of relationship between the two groups.
Although Nigeria as a whole is experiencing rapid urbanization, individual cities have unique peculiarities in terms of histories and characteristics. A brief survey of this diversity will provide a more nuanced understanding of Nigerian cities. Nigeria provides diverse examples of historical urban development. A useful distinction that could enhance our understanding is the classification of the cities into indigenous and non-indigenous. This distinction basically refers to the development or emergence of city relative to the colonial period. By implication, indigenous cities are those which originated prior to the period of the British colonial rule while those planned and constructed during the colonial period (1900-1960) are nonindigenous.
Residential segregation give rise to a kind of structure which made conflict between the different separate communities that had been created inevitable. This was essentially because the cities were characterized by a hierarchy of citizenship rights, in which some individuals had more opportunities and more access to societal resources than others. This situation perfectly suited the needs of the colonial power that sought to keep Nigerians internally divided so that they could not present a united front against colonial oppression. The strategy was very successful but it created problems which are still much part of Nigerian life some four and half decades after independence and they continue to perpetuate the interests of neocolonialism (Edewor 2011). Some of these issues are the focus of this study which focuses on Bukuru Jos south L.G.A.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Social Scientists have long studied patterns of racial and ethnic segregation because of the close connection between a group’s spatial position in society and its socioeconomic wellbeing. Opportunities and resources are unevenly distributed in space; some neighbourhoods have safer streets, higher home values, better services, more qualitative educational facilities, and more supportive peer environments than others. As people and families improve their socioeconomic circumstances, they generally move to gain access to these benefits. In doing so, they seek to convert past socioeconomic achievements into improved residential circumstances, yielding tangible immediate benefits and enhancing future prospects for social mobility by providing greater access to residentially determined resources.
Research have been conducted on the dynamics and consequences of racial residential segregation in Europe and US metropolitan areas. Van Hamand and Clark (2009) explored in-depth the influence of race on residential segregation, relocation and mobility. However, the findings of such studies could not be generalised as they only employed limited number of sample data which is not enough to draw inferences and conclusion.
Although many researchers studied residential segregation and settlement patterns in some northern Nigerian states, based on accessible works little has been published on residential segregation in Bukuru Jos South. It is in the light of the above that this work examines the pattern and factors responsible for residential segregation in Bukuru Jos South. Bukuru Jos South has witnessed increased population. This population is heterogeneous in composition with people from different socio ethnic, cultural, religious backgrounds. They are also economically different based on income and other yard stick of measurement. In the not too distant past, the sharp difference in residential segregation is not noticed but recently it is appearing discernible. Thus there is the need to conduct a research on the spatial pattern of residential segregation in Bukuru Jos South.
1.3 Research Questions
- What are the factors responsible for residential segregation in Bukuru Jos South?
- What is the spatial pattern of residential segregation in Bukuru Jos South?
- What are the effects of residential segregation in Bukuru Jos South?
1.4 Objectives of Study
- Analyze the factors influencing residential segregation in the study area.
- Assess the effects of residential segregation in the study area.
- Identify and map the patterns of residential segregation in the study area.
1.5 Justification for the Study
The study is significant to understanding inequality in urban areas. It will also increase awareness and documentation of ethnic and religious disparities. Therefore, continued exploration of residential segregation is clearly warranted. Combining information on personal experiences of discrimination with indicators of neighborhood population composition and residential segregation would allow examination of whether residence in primarily minority neighborhoods suffers perception of discrimination.
Studying segregation explores various minority groups have similar effects on residential segregation outcomes. By understanding the complexity of residential segregation, policy makers can effectively construct strategies to minimize the negative consequences and to enhance the positive impacts of living in segregated neighborhoods. Therefore, this study will hopefully help to elucidate thresholds above which segregation may have a detrimental effect on health outcomes.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this research covers Bukuru Jos South. The spatial extent of this research study covers some selected neighbourhoods in both Bukuru Jos South L.G.A. and Barkin Ladi Local Government Areas.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Framework
2.1.1 Evolutionary Theory of Residential Segregation
This study abstracts some explanations which play significant roles in the study of residential segregation. Residential segregation that resulted from economic factors was an interpretation of anthropological, cultural and social perspectives and was a synthetically result involving the effects of historical, institutional, economic, social and other aspects.[email protected].[email protected].