WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Welcome! My name is Damaris I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.

Download this complete Project material titled; Effects Of Season On Semen Characteristics And Fertility Of Shikabrown Breeder Cocks with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

  • Format: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • pages = 65

 3,000

ABSTRACT

The seasonal influence on the reproductive cycle of Shikabrown breeder cocks was
characterized by evaluating seminal traits, weekly for the three seasons associated with the
Northern Guinea Savannah zone. Semen samples were analyzed by gross and routine
laboratory methods for volume, motility, concentration, colour, percent dead, and percent total
abnormality.
The highest volume and concentration values of 0.50 + 0.03 ml and 3.60 +
0.16×109/ml, respectively were obtained from Shikabrown White breeder cocks during the
rainy season, while the lowest volume and concentration values of 0.39 + 0.01ml and 2.90 +
0.04 x109/ml, respectively were obtained for the same strain during the hot-dry season.
Spermatozoa motility of 80.5 + 1.1% and 82.3 + 0.5% were obtained during the harmattan and
rainy season respectively, for the Shikabrown White breeder cocks. Percent dead sperm value
of 4.6 + 8.3% and 6.40 + 0.5% were recorded for the rainy and hot-dry seasons respectively;
which were statistically different from the value of 9.0 + 1.0% obtained during the harmattan
season for the Shikabrown White breeder cocks.
For the Shikabrown Red breeder cocks spermatozoa volume and concentration was
0.44 + 0.02ml and 0.45 + 0.05ml; and 3.44 + 0.05 x 109/ml and 3.53 + 0.09 x109/ml were
recorded for the harmattan and rainy seasons respectively. These values were significantly (P <
0.01) different from the values of 0.30 + 0.02ml and 2.50 + 0.08×109/ml obtained during the
hot-dry season for volume and concentration, respectively during the hot-dry season for the
Shikabrown Red breeder cocks. Per cent dead sperm in the Shikabrown Red cocks for the
rainy and hot-dry seasons (5.50 + 1.0% and 6.20 + 1.2%, respectively) were not statistically (P
< 0.05) significant, but were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the value of 8.40 + 0.5%
obtained during the harmattan season.
The ejaculate trait for per cent abnormality in Shikabrown Red cocks were not
significantly different from that of the Shikabrown White strains. In summary, although
spermatozoa were recovered throughout the year, optimal gamete quality was observed during
the rainy and harmattan seasons. Previous studies in cocks have demonstrated seasonal effects
on seminal traits, this is the first study to demonstrate a distinct effect of season on fertility and
testicular functional integrity.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………………… i
DECLARATION ……………………………………………………. . … .ii
CERTIFICATION ……………………….……………………………… iii
DEDICATION …………………………………………………………… iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………… v
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………… vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………… viii
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………… xi
LIST OF PLATES………………………………………………………… xii
LIST OF APPENDICES ………………………………………………… xiii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction ……………………………..………………………… 1
1.1 Objectives ………………………………………………………… 3
1.2 Research Justification……………………………………………… 3
1.3 Statements of Hypotheses………………………………………… 5
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review………………………………………………… 6
2..1 The Domestic Chicken……………………………………………. 6
2.2 Effect of Climatic Element on Poultry……………………………… 6
2.3 Reproduction in Male Avian Species………………………………. 9
2.4 Factors Affecting Reproduction in The Male………………………. 10
2.4.1 Age and Breed………………………….…………………………… 10
2.4.2 Temperature ……………………………..…………………….. 11
2.4.3 Light or Photo period……………………………………………. 13
2.4.4 Diurnal rhythm………………………………………………….. 14
2.4.5 Nutrition…………………………………………………………. 14
2.5 Physical and Chemical Properties of Semen……………..……… 15
2.5.1. Morphology of Spermatozoa…………………………………….. 15
2.6 Mating Behaviour…………………………………………………. 16
9
2.7 Semen Production…………………………………………………. 18
2.8 Semen Collection…………………………………………………. 18
2.8.1 Abdominal Massage…………………………………..………… 19
2.9 Semen Handling and Dilution………………………………….. 20
2.10 Fertility in Female Avian Species……………………………… . 21
2.10.1Techniques for Investigating Embryonic Development………… 22
2.10.2 Analysis of fertility Data……………………………………… 23
2.11 Seasonal Variation of fertility under Natural Mating and Artificial
Insemination …………………………………………….…….….. 25
2.11.1 Control of Fertility by Extrinsic Factors…………………………… 27
2.11.2 Semen Concentration and Quality………………………… ……. 27
2.12 Timing of Insemination with Oviposition …………………………… 28
2.12.1Insemination Timing and Dosage…………………………………… 29
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and Methods………………………………………………. 31
3.1 Study Location ……………………………………………………… 31
3.2.1 Experimental Cocks..………………………………………………… 31
3.2.2 Management System ………………………………………..………. 31
3.2.3 Semen Collection …………………………………………………….. 32
3.2.4 Semen Evaluation…………………………………………………… 34
3.3.1 Artificial Insemination of Breeder Hens…… …………………… 34
3.4.1 Determination of Gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves ……… …… 38
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results …………………………………………… ……………. 40
4.1 Seminal Characteristics………………………………………… 40
4.2 Correlation co-efficient ………………………………………… 51
4.3 Fertility and Hatchability……………………………………….. 56
10
4.4 Sperm/ spermatid Reserves…………………………………….. 58
CHAPTR FIVE
5.0 Discussion …………………………………………………..…. 61
5.1 Conclusions……………………………………………………. . 68
5.2 Recommendations ……………………………………………… 68
References ……………………………………………………….. 70

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction
In the animal kingdom, birds (aves) just like the fish (pisces) and frogs
(amphibian) are oviparous; that is, they lay many eggs with abundant amount of yolk
and they have poorly developed external genitalia (Hafez, 1990). Embryonic and foetal
developments take place outside the body of the birds. In cocks, the paired testes are
attached to the dorsal wall of the abdomen on either side of the midline adjacent to the
anterior parts of the kidney and just posterior to the lungs (Lake, 1978). Semen is
produced in the testes and stored in the ductus deferens, which extends tortuously from
the testes and ends in two papillae or wart-like projections (phallus or penis) into the
cloaca or vent (Lake, 1978).
Little attention has been paid to the role of males in improving egg production of
domestic fowl, with the exception of progeny testing and selection of males on the basis
of sib performance. Semen and egg productions appear to be related (Marks, 1981). A
very effective selection method used to improve egg production in chicken is the
Osborne index, which involves the use of egg production of full and half sisters of
males selected for egg characteristics (Johari et al.,1991).
There is scanty information between Osborne index and semen quality traits.
Information on the relationship between semen quality traits and egg production of full
sisters of males has been documented (Thiyagasundaran et al., 1985).
It is imperative that male animals should be in good physical and sexual health
conditions either for natural mating or collection of good quality semen for artificial
insemination (Zemjanis, 1970; Roberts, 1971). As a powerful tool for genetic
13
manipulation, artificial insemination has been reported to increase fertility and
hatchability rates in turkeys and chickens (Mahanta et al., 1991).
Breed and seasonal differences in semen production of cocks have been
reported (Egbunike and Oluyemi, 1979; Rekwot et al., 2005). The effects of season on
semen quality with concomitant effects on fertility in birds have also been reported
(Nayak and Misra, 1991; Rekwot et al., 2005). Onuora (1982) showed the significant
effects of low relative humidity, high temperatures, low rainfall and peak amount of
sunshine on seminal characteristics of cocks, resulting in poor semen quality.
Genotypic differences affect body size and semen characteristics of cocks, while age
differences significantly affect variation in body size, semen volume and pH. Nwagu et
al. (1996) showed that colour of semen was positively correlated with semen
concentrations.
It is desirable to incorporate the techniques of semen evaluation and artificial
insemination in poultry breeding programmes in Nigeria in order to increase the rate of
genetic progress. Breeding soundness examination in the area of semen collection and
evaluation of the breeding stock cocks are important in identifying and selecting sires
of superior genetic quality. This present study was aimed at examining the influence of
season on ejaculate characteristics and reproductive function of Shikabrown White and
Shikabrown Red breeder cocks in National Animal Production Research Institute
(NAPRI), Shika, located in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria.
14
1.1 The major objectives of this work were:
i. To determine the effect of season on semen characteristics of Shikabrown White and
Shikabrown Red breeder cocks.
ii. To determine the effect of time of insemination on fertility rates and hatchability of
breeder hens.
iii. To determine the gonadal sperm and spermatid reserves of Shikabrown White and
Shikabrown Red breeder cocks.
1.2 Research Justification
With the recent ban on the importation of poultry and their products into
Nigeria, there is a huge challenge for indigenous poultry production to meet the
immediate and future protein needs of our increasing population. This challenge calls
for improvement and even a change in our current extensive traditional methods of
livestock production to the scientifically based, and highly productive intensive
management system. Except for the recent attempt by National Animal Production
Research Institute, Shika– Zaria, there is no established practical national poultrybreeding
programme in Nigeria. At the present time, chicken-breeding flocks used for
the production of hatching eggs are normally under natural mating conditions and
maintained in floor pens. Cock semen is hardly evaluated. The evaluation of semen is
of value in the detection of all morphological deformities, which can lead to low
fertility. Often, fertility is assessed in the physical appearance of breeder cocks. In
breeding, it has been established that semen quality is more important than physical
appearance (Lake 1978; Sexton, 1979).
Selection for genetic improvement is more rapid and extensive through semen
evaluation, and in artificially inseminated birds than in flock-mated birds (Wishart et
15
al., 2001). The basis for this is that only high-performing birds are retained for
breeding and cocks with exceptional reproductive traits are used for artificial
insemination (Jean, 1983). Semen evaluation of cocks for this rapid genetic
improvement is the foundation, since semen from good cocks can be diluted for
inseminating more hens (Jean, 1983).
The adoption of this scientific approach of semen evaluation in chicken in
Nigeria may stimulate further research into multiple factors affecting semen production
in poultry, which include genetics, nutrition, diseases, ambient temperature and age of
cocks. Semen preservation and storage, and consequently, fertility are required and
almost unavoidable in breeders housed in cages. With artificial insemination broiler
breeders produce eggs at a higher rate and have better-feed conversion ratio than
breeders maintained in conventional manner (McDaniel and Sexton, 1977). Semen
production by cocks housed in wire cages has been reported to be equal to that of males
maintained on litter floors (Wishart et al., 2001); and egg production of caged chicken
hens on artificial insemination is reported to be higher than that of floor housed chicken
(Wishart et al., 2001). Wishart et al. (2001) also reported that caged breeder hens
produced large eggs and required less feed per dozen eggs than floor housed hens.
Rozenboim et al. (2003) observed that artificial insemination improves fertility
and, hence, hatchability by eliminating factors such as sexual adjustment and nonsynchronized
breeders in ostriches. In addition, it reduces drastically the maintenance
costs for breeding flocks by reducing the number of male birds. This observation was
in agreement with the findings of Jean, (1983) who demonstrated that fewer cocks were
required with artificial insemination than with natural mating. With artificial
insemination, housing breeders in cage facilities similar to commercial egg production
16
units would allow for mechanical egg collection and, therefore, eliminate much of the
manual labour associated with floor type pens, and possibly reduce the cost of
producing hatching eggs (Rozenboim et al., 2003).
Finally, the adoption of semen evaluation and artificial insemination will be a
useful tool in disease control programmes in the poultry industry in Nigeria. Therefore,
the information obtained from this research may be of great value to the Nigerian
poultry industry. Performance test on breeder cocks through their semen evaluation will
enable selection for the best males, which could be extensively and rapidly used for
artificial insemination.
The main disadvantage of semen evaluation and artificial insemination in
chicken breeders is the labour, that is, the team of inseminators required for carrying
out the operation. Technical know-how is essential for milking cocks, the operation of
semen evaluation, and especially for the insemination. However, the above- mentioned
advantages of semen evaluation and artificial insemination in breeder birds over our
conventional floor birds may more than offset the cost of labour involved in artificial
insemination.
1.3 Statements of Hypotheses
The statement of hypotheses for this research are as follows:-
1. Ho = That semen characteristics vary with seasons in Shikabrown breeder cocks.
H1 = That semen characteristics are not affected by seasons in the Shikabrown
breeder cocks.
2. Ho = That fertility and hatchability are affected by timing of artificial insemination
in Shikabrown breeder hens.
3. H1 = That timing of artificial insemination has no effect on fertility and
hatchability of Shikabrown breeder hens.

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT»
Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631, 08157509410 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: edustoreng@gmail.com