This study focus on the embellishment of fabrics and garments using design motifs from the costumes of the Oba of Benin.The study was motivated by the need to embellish and produce fabrics and garments using the artifacts and motifs from the costumes of the Oba of Benin in batik resist technique, therefore the problem of this study, is to identify, utilize and produce some of the motifs and symbols often found on the costumes of the Oba of Benin as source of motifs toward embellishment in fabric fashion and garment enterprise in Nigeria for better appreciation and patronage. The main objectives of this study were to identify and utilize the appropriate costume in the embellishment and production of contemporary fabrics and garments and also to explore and adopt the different types of design motifs and redesign motifs and symbols from the costumes of the Oba of Benin for embellishment of modern fabrics and garments in batik. The research used explorative and experimental design method and verbal interviews, observation, internet source, photographs and questionnaire in the collection of data. Based on the analysis of the study the following findings were made : the decorations on the costumes of the Oba of Benin can be extracted as motifs to embellish and produce modern fabrics and garments. It was also found out that, it is more explorative using the decorations on the Oba of Benin as motif for the embellishment of modern fabric in batik. The redesign motifs extracted from the decorations on the costumes of the Oba of Benin is possible for the adoption on modern fabrics and the construction of modern garments, there is no restriction for anyone who may wish to conduct research on the rich culture heritage in abundance in the costume of the Oba of Benin Kingdom. In conclusion, it is recommended to other textile student the need for further study to explore other methods of fabric embellishment in textile using traditional motifs and the patronage of made in Nigeria textiles should be encourage and supported by government through awareness campaigns and orientation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
List of Plates xi
List of Appendices xii
Definition of Operational Terms xii
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Aim of the Study; 3
1.4 The objectives of this Study are to: 3
1.5 Research questions 4
1.6 Justification of the Study: 4
1.7 Significance of the Study: 5
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study: 5
1.9 Basic Assumption 6
CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION 7
2.2 Account of Benin 7
2.3 Kingship 8
2.4 Costumes and Decorations 11
2.5 Royal Costumes, Palace Festivals and Ceremonies (Benin Kingdom in particular) 12
2.6 Symbols Associated With the Royal Costumes 12
2.7 Traditional Costumes, Design and Clothing 14
2.8 Dyers 15
2.9 Fabric Design (Resist Techniques) 16
2.10 GARMENTS 21
2.10.1 History of Clothing and Its Use 21
2.10.2 Garment, Ethnic and Cultural Heritage 22
2.11 Brief History of Indigo Dye 24
CHAPTER THREE : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Research Design 25
3.3 Methodology 25
3.4 Data Collection 26
3.5 Sample Size of the Design Motifs 27
3.6 Motifs Development 27
3.7 Combination of Motifs to Form Pattern and Design 32
3.8 Materials and Methods 38
3.9 Finishing Procedure 40
3.10 Pretreatment and Preparation Of Fabric: 41
3.11 Preparation and Transfer of Designs On To Fabric: 42
3.12 Preparation of Wax, Waxing and Waxing Tools: 43
3.13 Processes of Dying: 44
3.14 Process and result of dying: 45
3.15 Garment Construction 48
CHAPTER FOUR : DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 50
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis 51
4.3 The Consumers of Dyed Product 54
4.4 Findings of the study 56
4.5 Discussion: 57
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Major Findings 59
5.2 Conclusion 59
5.3 Recommendations 60
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge 60
1.1 Background of the Study
Costume is the distinctive style of dress of a particular people, class, or period. A costume can be a particular style of clothing worn to portray the wearer as a character or types of character other than their regular person at a social event as can be seen in a masquerade, a fancy dress party or in a theatre performance, ceremonial period, and royalty. Webster’s dictionary defines costume also as a style of dress including accessories, typical of a certain country, period, profession, etc. Embellishments are features of a garment, they serve as decorative details to make garment and fabric more appealing to the eyes, according to vocabulary dictionary embellishment is a decorative detail or feature added to something to make it more attractive. SewEasy (2017) observed that embellishment makes the difference and causes us to have a second look at a garment in a shop, so they can definitely add a lot of value. Embellishment add extra glamour and are a statement which can either make your clothing look subtle and sweet, or it can make your outfit project a bold and adventurous statement. A few common example of embellishment are batik, beads, embroidery, but this study used batik. Webster(2009) define a fabric as a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc). Douglas(2012) recorded that cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a piece of fabric that has been processed.
Many African possess or hold on to their traditional costumes which may be found under modification from time to time. Benin Kingdom is one of such traditional kingdoms that is still holding on to its rich cultural heritage of royal costumes in Nigeria which this study
intends to survey. From observation made in this study the royal costumes of the Oba of Benin contain vital symbols that are potential inspiration towards exploration for adaptation in areas for contemporary fabric design fashion in Nigeria. It has equally been observed that not much has been done towards exploiting the rich symbols for design in contemporary Nigeria Society. The motivation for this study there for arise from the desire to use the rich motives found on the costumes of the Oba of Benin to enrich fabric design in the fashion industry in contemporary Nigeria society for appreciation and exploitation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Benin Kingdom till today posses great and variety of colourful decorations of royal costumes with various types of symbols from her artifacts. These motifs and symbols have rich design values associated with the rich royal costumes of the Oba of Benin Kingdom. They could have been sources of design inspiration in textile design for gainful exploitation in the areas of fabric fashion and garment embellishment. However, they are till today not known to this study to have been adequately studied and documented. “The Benin tradition is one that many celebrate as still maintaining its core cultural aesthetics inspite of modernity and the various trends that have come with time. The ceremonies and events which chronicle the coronation of an Oba is an integral part of the culture and life of the people”, as recorded by Vanessa (2016).The home made goods which Nigerians now rush for include textile products such as adireelecko, okene, akwete and aso-oke (Ala‟u 2006).In the Nigerian traditional societies, craftsmanship as reported by Dike and Oyelola (1988) manifested itself in terracotta and bronze of the ancient Nok, Ife arts and famous Benin bronzes respectively.
The problem of this study therefore is to the best of the researcher‟s knowledge there is no research that has directly or indirectly dealt with experimental embellishment of textiles using designs motifs, symbols or artifacts of the Oba of Benin as source of design motifs.So it is concerned with the determination of extracting and adapting some of the motifs and symbols often found on the costumes of the Oba of Benin as sources of motifs toward embellishment in fabric fashion and garment enterprises in Nigeria for better appreciation and patronage.
1.3 Aim of the Study;
1. The aim of this study is to produce decorated modern fabrics and garments using motifs extracted from the costumes of the Oba of Benin in batik techniques of fabric decoration.
1.4 The objectives of this Study are to:
I. Identify and utilize the appropriate materials, motifs and techniques from the Oba of Benin’s costume in the embellishment and production of contemporary fabrics and garments.
II. Explore and experiment with the different types of design motifs extracted from the Benin Kingdom’s royal costumesso as to embellish and produce various types of modern fabrics and garments in batik, suitable for modern Nigeria.
III. Adopt and redesign motifs and symbols from the costumes of the Oba of Benin for embellishment of modern fabrics andgarmentsin batik.
IV. Highlight the implications of the study on Benin Kingdom and Nigerian society, culturally and economically.
1.5 Research questions
1. How can the appropriate materials, motifs and techniques be identifiedfor embellishing and producing contemporary fabrics and garments costume from the Oba of Benin decorations?
2. To what extent can different types of design motifs be extracted from the Benin Kingdom royal costumes to produce various types of modern fabrics and garments in batik suitable for modern Nigeria?
3. In which way can the motifs and symbols found on the costumes of Oba of Benin be adopted towards embellishment ofmodern fabricsand garmentsin batik?
4. What are the implications of the study on Benin Kingdom and Nigeria culturally and economically?
1.6 Justification of the Study:
This research is necessary, because it concerns the design and production of modern fabrics and garments based on the motifs extracted from the royal costumes of the Benin Kingdom which is one of the important and oldest kingdoms in Nigeria.Benin Kingdom posses great rich cultural heritage of artifacts that can be investigated in several ways, particularly in batik technique fabric apparels enterprises. From this study, it was discovered that other cultural symbols and motifs have been used continually to embellish design in fabric fashion industries in Nigeria which include, Ala‟u (2006) and Joy (2016) respectively. The various motifs on the traditional royal costumes of the Oba of Benin, if inculcated and manipulated in batik on fabric fashion and garment enterprise can be source of enriching design fashion industries in Nigeria. The Benin people and their political as well as cultural history concentrated mainly on their cultural history and origin of the people of Benin, but enough
attention was not given to these artifacts like in motifs and decoration toward effective utilization to positive result which therefore justify this study.
1.7 Significance of the Study:
In the time of democracy in Nigeria with some economic challenges that is making the people patronise home made goods makes this study relevant. This study will motivate and inspire textile artists, designers, teachers and students especially those involve in costuming and design to carry out further study in this area. It will also encourage entrepreneurship, which will in turn solve some problems of unemployment and enhance the Nigerian economy. The study will also make traditional leaders and other Nigerians to place high value on indigenous costumes, which will have impact (influence) on the society. Also Nigerians from various parts of the country will have better knowledge, recognition and appreciation of the traditional royal costumes, and other Nigerian traditional costumes as part of our heritage. It will also be a way of exposing Benin Kingdom and other Nigerian history and culture which will be fully documented at the end of the study.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study:
Its scope covers the costumes of the Oba of Benin, who actually lives at Oredo (Benin City), his staff, palace textiles and other related items.The study is delimited to Oredo Local Government of Edo State It also covers the use of batik techniques and other related fabric and garment design and production techniques, materials and so on.
1.9 Basic Assumption
It is assumed that all data collected and analyzed from the target population at various locations within the scope of the study are true reflection of the population. This will enhance reliability and authenticity of the conclusions.