Entrepreneurial Skills Required by Women Retirees for Processing of Garri as Sustainable Business in Enugu State
This study was on entrepreneurial skills required by women retirees for processing of garri as sustainable business in Enugu state. Three objectives were raised which included: to ascertain the practices needed by women retirees in planning for processing of garri in Enugu state, to ascertain the practices needed by women retirees in processing of garri in Enugu state and to ascertain the practices needed by women retirees in marketing of processed garri for sustainable livelihood. The total population for the study is 75 women Nsuuka, Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
1.1Background of the study
Gari is a product derived from cassava which is an important food crop in the tropics, accounting for 33% of all staple foods produced in subSaharan Africa. In terms of food supply (kcal/ capita/ day) in Nigeria especially Southern part of Nigeria. Cassava cultivation and promotion has been part of government strategy under the agenda for prosperity through the smallholder’s commercialization programme (Samura AE, 2017)
Garri is the creamy granular flour obtained by processing the starchy tuberous roots of freshly harvested cassava. Garri is processed by peeling, washing, grating and fermenting the mature cassava roots. After a few days of fermentation, say three to five days depending on preference, the grated mash is bagged, de-watered and grated again. Sources of fire for frying garri include charcoal, firewood, diesel or gas burners (https://en.wikipedia.org)
Gari (also Garri or tapioca) is the most widely traded processed cassava product. It is estimated that more than 75 percent of the cassava produced in Africa is processed into garri. As a result, garri prices are often a reliable indication of the demand and supply of cassava.
Women retirees, in the context of this study, are adult female individuals who have disengaged from the initial employments after long services but are still willing and able to continue their existence in a desirable but less strenuous occupation with affordable investment. For the women retirees to re-engage in processing cassava into garri as a business, there require entrepreneurial skills. Entrepreneurial, in the view of Meredith, Nelson and Neck (1990), means combining personal characteristics, financial means and resources within one’s environment. Sett (2004), described being entrepreneurial as having quality business vision, opportunity, mission, strategies and resources. In the context of this study, entrepreneurial means the ability of the women retirees to find an opportunity and gather the necessary resources to invest in the business in which they are interested and skilled. Skills, in the view of Ibrahim (2007), is a specified ability to do something well. Ejiofor (2010) explained skills as well established habits of doing things by people. Onu and Ugwuoke (2009) speculated that one who lacks skills may not be useful to himself and the society. This implies that a woman retiree who lacks entrepreneurial skills in processing garri may not be able to establish the business, let alone sustaining it
Entrepreneurial is described by Ogundele (2000) as the ability and willingness of individuals to perceive new economic opportunities and seize these opportunities into the market. The authors stressed that it is process which involves the efforts of an individual in identifying viable opportunities in a business environment and obtaining and managing the resources needed to exploit those opportunities. Ogundele and Olayemi (2002) expressed that entrepreneurial is the ability to organize and manage any enterprise especially a business with considerable initiative and risk. On the other hand, practices mean the actual performance of an activity in a real situation. It is the application of knowledge into action to produce an actual performance in an operation (Yerkes, 1994). In the submission of Encerta (2009), practice is a set of standard procedure used in a particular field to achieve a goal. It involves the process of carrying out an idea, plan or theory. Therefore, entrepreneurial practices, in the context of this study, refer to the standard procedures required by the women retirees to organize and manage processing of garri as a business for their sustainable livelihood. But the question is: what are the practices in processing of garri needed by the women retirees to engage in it as an enterprise?
Statement of the problem
The observation is that in retirement, one’s primary source of income ceases or reduces depending on one’s former place of work. This situation exposes the involved individuals known as the retirees to stress, emotional insecurity, economic insecurity and fear of sustainable livelihood. The government being fully aware of these challenges during retirement, have mapped out various schemes to see and plan for better conditions of the retirees. Such schemes include the Public Service Pension Scheme, Private/Public Sector Occupational Schemes, National Provident Fund that has since collapsed and Pension Reform Act enacted by Obasanjo in June, 2004. Despite all these machinations by the government, the retirees are not getting paid which worsens their conditions. To cap it all, many of them have died of hunger, diseases and frustration (Dike, 2006). Nine hundred and eighty (980) teachers have died in seven years while waiting for retirement benefits (Mudiage, 2008). This implies that a better alternative is urgently needed to save this situation. Further more, the researchers considered processing of garri as a better alternative for the women retirees because it is culturally gender bias in favour of women, less strenuous, less time consuming, requires little accommodation and capital involvement. Besides, processing of oil bean seeds is left in the hand of aged women whose out puts fall below the quantity demanded by consumers in the market. A search in literature and visitation to skill acquisition centres in the State by the researchers indicated that there are no identified entrepreneurial practices in processing of garri that could be used to train the women retirees for their sustainable livelihood in Enugu.
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- to ascertain the practices needed by women retirees in planning for processing of garri in Enugu state
- to ascertain the practices needed by women retirees in processing of garri in Enugu state
- to ascertain the practices needed by women retirees in marketing of processed garri for sustainable livelihood.
The study formulated the following research question
- What are the practices needed by women retirees in planning for processing of garri in Enugu state?
- What are the practices needed by women retirees in processing of garri in Enugu state?
- What are the practices needed by women retirees in marketing of processed garri for sustainable livelihood?
The study formulated the following research hypotheses
H0: there are no practices needed by women retirees in planning for processing of garri in Enugu state
H1: there are practices needed by women retirees in planning for processing of garri in Enugu state
H0: there are no practices needed by women retirees in processing of garri in Enugu state
H2: there are practices needed by women retirees in processing of garri in Enugu state
H0: there are no practices needed by women retirees in marketing of processed garri for sustainable livelihood
H3: there are practices needed by women retirees in marketing of processed garri for sustainable livelihood
Significance of the study
The study will be very significant to students, lecturers and the retirees women especially in Enugu state. The study will give a clear insight on the entrepreneurial skills required by women retirees for processing of garri as sustainable business. The result will help women and the general public to know the practices needed in planning, processing and marketing of garri. The study will also serve as a reference to other researcher that will embark on the related topic
Scope of the study
The scope of the study covers the entrepreneurial skills required by women retirees for processing of garri as sustainable business. The study will be limited to retirees women in Enugu state
Limitation of the study
The researcher encounters some constraints which limit the scope of the study namely:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).[email protected][email protected]