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ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate entrepreneurship education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State. The specific purposes of the study were to identify the types of entrepreneurship education programmes for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state; determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhance production potentials of out-of-school youths in Enugu state; determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhance skill acquisition among out-of-school youths in Enugu state; determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhance marketing potentials of out-of-school youths in Enugu State; ascertain the factors militating against the entrepreneurial education programme for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state; and examine the strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education programme for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State. The study was guided by 6 research questions and two null hypotheses. The design of the study was a descriptive survey design. Simple random sampling technique was used in drawing the sample composition of the study. The population of this study comprised eight thousand seven hundred and ninety (8,790) male and female members of one hundred and fifteen (115) registered youth Organizations in Enugu state. The sample consisted of 899 members of registered youths organizations in Enugu State. The data collected from the six research questions were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviation, while t-test analysis was used to test the two null-hypotheses formulated for the study. The findings revealed that the outcome of technological activities can improve individuals and nations  economically and otherwise, education equips out-of-school youths with manufacturing skills, entrepreneurship education enhances functional skill acquisition among the out-of-school youths. Training on marketing skills place to ensure that out-of-school youths gain increased awareness and understanding of financial products and services.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                ii

Approval Page                                                                                           iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                      v

Abstract                                                                                                      vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                 vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                      1

Background of the Study                                                                                      1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                     12

Purpose of the Study                                                                                  14

Significance of the Study                                                                            15

Research Questions                                                                                    17

Hypotheses                                                                                                          18

Scope of the Study                                                                                     19

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                         20

Conceptual Framework                                                                            21

  • Concept of Entrepreneurship                                                                    21
  • Concept of Entrepreneurship Education                    21
  • Concept of Economic Empowerment 28
  • Concept of Out-of-School Youths 32

Theoretical Framework                                                                            94

  • Human capital theory 91
  • Risk Taking Theory 96

Review of Empirical Studies                                                                     97

Summary of Literature Review                                                                100

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                       103

Design of the Study                                                                                    103

Area of the Study                                                                                                 103

Population of the Study                                                                                       104

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                               105

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                            105

Validation of Instrument                                                                                      106

Reliability of Instrument                                                                                      107

Procedure for Data Collection                                                                              107

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                     108

References                                                                                                  109

Appendix A: Population Distribution                                                       121

Appendix B: Sample Distribution of Population                                                122

Appendix C: Questionnaire                                                                       123

Appendix D: Validated Questionnaire                                                       124

Appendix E: Reliability Test                                                                     131

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Entrepreneurship education is a programme or part of a programme that prepares individuals to undertake the formation and/or operation of small business enterprises which also includes franchise operations for the purpose of performing all business functions relating to a product or service with emphasis on social responsibilities, legal requirements and risks for the sake of profit involved in the conduct of private business enterprises. Entrepreneurship education entails a philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment, promoting new sets of attitudes and culture for the attainment of future challenges (Arogundade, 2011). It involves combination of various resources to increase value and introduce change and innovation into the production process for creating wealth and employment opportunities. Acoording to Osuala (2010), entrepreneurship education could turn around the economic fortune of any society by providing jobs and reducing the unemployment rate in such society. Entrepreneurship could aid people in identifying investment opportunities and also help them to harness untapped natural resources in the environment in order to produce the goods and services needed in the country. These will no doubt reduce or eliminate poverty and help to increase per capita income in the country which is one of the cardinal points of the entrepreneurship ventures.

Entrepreneurship education seeks to prepare people (particularly the youths), to be responsible enterprising individuals who become entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial thinkers by immersing them in real life learning experience thereby taking risks, manage results and learn from the outcome of the entrepreneurial activities (Suleiman, 2010). Through entrepreneurship education, people come to know that they can either take or create jobs which make them to be self-employed. Entrepreneurship education could be given to interested out-of-school youths in Enugu State through workshops, classes, and conferences thereby learning basic ideas of starting their own entrepreneurship businesses and keeping it running.

More so, Ezeilo (2005) in her view, believe that entrepreneurship education equips individuals particularly youths in selecting suitable job positions, and occupations; as well as upgrading skills for those who are already employed in selected occupations. She further commented that re-training programmes suppose to be designed to prepare youths for gainful employment as skilled workers in agriculture, home economics, trade, and industrial occupation .In support of his opinion , Ubah (2013) emphasize that it is through entrepreneurship education that  most rural and urban youths are sensitized and made aware of income generating activities such as; poultry management, mechanized farming, cassava processing,, soap making, basket weaving, and among others. Thus, Agboeze (2012) also emphasize that there are many entrepreneurship education programmes where out-of-school youths are empowered. For instance, there are sociological and technological entrepreneurship education programmes, and more specifically, agricultural/agro-allied activities where there are foodstuffs, restaurants, fast food vending etc. In the area of solid minerals, there are quarrying, polishing and crushing engineering. In power and transport, there are power generations, Haulage business (cargo and passengers). In the area of information and telecommunication   business, there are manufacturing and repairs of GSM accessories and the printing and selling of Recharge cards. In hospitality and tourism business, there are hotels, accommodation, film and home video production; in oil and gas business, there are construction and maintenance of pipelines, drilling, refining bye products.

Mobile technology as part of entrepreneurship education, its introduction and usage are used prolifically in the world today. The innovation has impacted positively on the lives of out-of-school youths more than any other technology. The usage has presented opportunities with different dimensions to all groups of individuals and businesses. Mobile commerce (M-commerce) means all forms of interface between a consumer and a mobile device (Alex 2010), these may also include but not limited to the issuance of electronic coupons and shopping over the internet through a mobile device. Mobile financial services therefore fall under this umbrella such as mobile personal banking and payments.

The construction industry as an aspect of entrepreneurship education in Enugu State has witnessed an overwhelming upsurge in construction contracting dominated by expatriate companies with few indigenous companies (Idoro, 2009). Unfortunately, the period also exposed the country’s indigenous companies to low level of human resources development required for; planning, designing, constructing and maintaining the magnitude (in size and number) of projects conceived by the government. In the area of environmental and waste management business, there is refuse collection/disposal, recycling and drainage/sewage construction job. In the area of financial banking services, there is banking, insurance and stock trading. In engineering and fabrication work, there are machines and tools fabrications. There is also the building and construction, where there are plan and design services for wealth creation among out-of-school youths. These entrepreneurship activities are aimed at making people, to become independent in entrepreneurship activities for economic empowerment and Enugu state which is the focus of this study is not left out. Enugu state has sterling qualities such as; resourcefulness, initiative, drive, imagination, enthusiasm, zest, dash, ambition, energy, boldness, audacity and courage, which are all valuable traits for entrepreneurship development. Supporting this assertion, bennell (2000) maintained that, governments, NGOs and international bodies seeking to improve the livelihood of the youths, could best pursue their empowerment objective by tapping into the innate resources of out-of-school youths, and build on their strong spirit of risk taking through entrepreneurship education which may in turn lead to economic empowerment.

Economic empowerment according to Ogbe (2006) is a way of motivating individuals in the society to be productive and self dependent by inculcating into the individual’s entrepreneurship skills such as personal business initiatives and basic skills in business development. In fact, the best foundation for any business success is to have several possibilities for creating profits. However, profit creation is determined by the choice of the business, self concept, interest, resources, and aspirations which in turn would enable the person to achieve self-development, self-actualization and self fulfillment. Production empowerment according to Idachaba (2006) is the basic focus of entrepreneurship initiatives. It is determined by what the person trained wants to produce, how to produce and whom to produce the goods for. Personal trait and initiative will instinct in the person on what to produce, which depends on the resources available. How to produce the goods depends on the factors of production available to him. Finally to whom such goods are produced for depends on market. Knowledge of the factors of production which determines how the goods are to be produced and to whom they are to be produced can be imbibed mostly through entrepreneurship training and marketing strategies

Marketing of goods and services produced in any economy according to Magbagbola (2004) is one of the crucial attributes of a businessman. This is because it creates in businessmen or women the ability to convince a customer that what have been produced is the best. Acquisition of adequate marketing skill through training enables the entrepreneurs to market their product easily. Usually, different marketing strategies are learnt and are applied to convince the customers of the need to purchase the products. The marketing strategies include effective communication, self confidence and self esteem.

The above empowerment strategies are expected to imbibe in the youths the spirit of craftsmanship and entrepreneurship which makes them job creators instead of job seekers. Empowerment therefore,  is a continuous and life long process and need to be in form of a systematic set of continuous, continued, sustained, never ending (but ever improving) and goal-directed effort. Sharman (2005) in his view said that, empowerment means a degree to which or a process in which the disadvantaged groups define their own needs and determine the response that is made to them e.g. women in the market, the destitute, out-of-school youths etc. All these summarizes that no matter how beautiful a programme is, if it does not meet peoples demand, that means such a programme could not empower people. The use of the word “empowerment” does not mean that people do not posses power already, rather it seeks to see the people as a whole entity or in groups and whose attempts in development process helped from being marginalized and increase their level of participation. Thus, an empowered individual is one, who experiences self confidence and self worth, who critically analyses his/her social and political environment and who is able to exercise control over decision that affect his/her life and business.

Empowerment entails a process of changing the distribution of power both in interpersonal relations and institutions. Thus at individual level, empowerment can be perceived as the ability to direct and control one’s own business. It is the process in which people gain control over their lives, by knowing and claiming their rights at different levels of the society. Knowledge and understanding are part of empowerment. The knowledge of self-awareness, acquiring the visible tools of power and positive self concept cannot be achieved over night (Strongquist, 2006). Empowerment is a continuous process. This means that, each stage in the process of empowerment should be a preparation for the next stage, example economic empowerment.

In Nigeria, Enugu state communities have one of the poorest sets of national development indices. And it is widely believed that the underdevelopment of human capacity (out-of-school youths) is a major factor contributing to underdevelopment of Enugu state (Okonkwo, 2006). Demographic segregation of the population indicates that out-of-school youths form the largest segment of youth population. Hence, development efforts must target and/or capture youthful population to have tangible and meaningful impact. Ubaka (2013) suggests the need for quality entrepreneurship education if the workforces that make up the major part of Nigerian population will acquire appropriate knowledge, attitude, abilities and skills that would make them to be empowered as job creators instead of job seekers.

Across the globe, out-of-school youths are a diverse groups, they may have not completed school, dropped out, or never started school at all (Okoli, 2004). Out-of-school youth may have jobs or no job, married, or may be girls who have been forced to quit school because they need to work in the home, who are pregnant, or have babies. They may be in factories as workers, live on the street, hawk vegetables in the market, stay at home for housework or child care, or are unemployed  in any way at all (Okafor, 2010). These out-of-school youths are male and female that has characteristics or experiences that put them at risk of developing behavioural problems and outcomes that have the potential to harm them, their communities, or even the larger society (Onyia, 2005).  Poor outcomes often develop in home and neighborhood environments that do not provide these out-of-school youths with adequate economic and emotional supports. Groups of vulnerable (or “at-risk”) youths include emancipating foster youths, runaway and homeless youths, youths involved in the juvenile justice system, among others. Like all other youths, out of school youths face a difficult transition to adulthood; however, their transition is further complicated by a number of challenges, including family conflict and obstacles to securing employment that provides adequate wages, and health insurance (Agbionu, 2012). Furthermore, out-of-school youths may also include married adolescents, males and females in rural areas, and girls who got pregnant and had to leave school. In most developing countries, girls are more likely to be out-of-school than boys. Other out-of-school youths live under the most challenging conditions and are marginalized from mainstream services and society. Street children, adolescent sex workers, orphans, child soldiers, and other such groups are mostly, but not always out-of-school youths (Ogbodo, 2009). Some characteristics of out-of-school youths entails never attend school are further subject to violence, isolation and impeded opportunities for development. They are more likely to marry at a younger age and have more children with fewer resources to care for them with limited knowledge of the cost of risky behaviours. With fewer opportunities to participate in productive paid employment, they are often coerced into burdensome and harmful labour (Ahiauzu, 2010). Out-of-school youth have many of the same needs as other youth, including the need for food and shelter, a sense of connection or belonging, skills in problem-solving and life planning, job or vocational training, access to appropriate services, empowerment to take responsibility for their own lives, and information on sexual health issues, including contraception and HIV prevention (Kuratko, 2013). However, different populations of out-of-school youths have specific needs defined by their circumstances. Some out-of-school youths are especially vulnerable and socially marginalized. Their numbers include street children, orphans, migrants, c, refugee children, drug users, gang members, and adolescent sex workers. These young people often have weak or no ties to their families and are not connected to the usual community supports such as schools, faith based organizations, or the formal workplace. They may have been abandoned by their families, lured or abducted from their families, or sold into bonded labour or brothels. In Enugu state, the poverty condition of these category of people forces them to endure situations like discrimination, exploitation, and social isolation that put them at risk of unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use (Olaleye, 2007).

An emerging trend in economic empowerment of out-of-youths in Nigeria is entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship has received increasing recognition as a source of job creation, empowerment for the out-of-school youths and economic dynamism in a rapidly globalizing world. Entrepreneurship is often used for developing enterprising people and inculcating an attitude of self-reliance using appropriate learning processes. Furthermore, entrepreneurship education is a vital key that unlocks the economic potentials to the people. It also empowers and equips out-of-school youths in Enugu State to participate in, and benefit from the national economy; facilitates and provides the basis for all round empowerment (Aluwong, 2010). Entrepreneurship education assumed the importance against the economic empowerment of out-of-youths to fight against their background of poverty, widespread unemployment, crime, violence and the need to shift the attention of the workforce away from white collar jobs and government patronage.

In Nigeria and the world over, entrepreneurship is seen as a key to economic and developmental process. When people are exposed to entrepreneurship, it is evident that they would be opened to opportunities that will enable them to become creative and productive. This will enhance job creation and improve the standard of living of the individuals in the society. Sanda (2010) considered entrepreneurship education as an indispensable ingredient for job creation. He asserts that Nigeria and other countries of the world are seeking to increase the entrepreneurship capacities of their citizens with the understanding that it will contribute to economic growth and development. The Nigerian government recognized that in order to empower young people (between the ages of 18 to 35) economically, there is a need to formulate the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) which aims at transforming its economy and growing small businesses in the country. In spite of all the opportunities offered by the Nigerian government, economically and otherwise, entrepreneurship education has still received little or no attention. Like every other aspect of education and empowerment programmes in Nigeria, entrepreneurship education faces a lot of challenges which inhibits its effectiveness on economic empowerment of out-of-school youths such as poor and lack of accessible road network, inadequate funding, irregular power supply, lack of security, in-depth corruption and lack of basic technological skills. Hence, the need for this study, which seeks to assess the extent entrepreneurship education enhance economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

Statement of the Problem

The present rate of unemployment in Enugu state is threatening. The desire to provide employment in the state is one of the major aspirations of the government. The government has over the years evolved measures of providing job opportunities both at the federal and state levels. The jobs being provided seems not to be enough as a result of the teeming population in the state. The inability of the government to provide adequate job opportunities has rather made some youths (out-of-school youths) take to armed robbery; kidnapping; prostitution and other social vices, which have made them become deviants in the society, and has in turn led to insecurity in the nation. This may be because the out-of-school youths are not informed on the types of entrepreneurship programmes to be embarked upon, and therefore, calls for entrepreneurship education programme.

The unacceptable rate of youth unemployment in the country, the low standard of living and the hope of technological transfer which is tending towards a mirage may be because of poor production capacity of the workforce,  have led to a renewed interest in entrepreneurship education programme for out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

Also, Shortage of skills remains a serious problem in Enugu State. Over 80% of the youths in Enugu State are unemployed simply because they do not have the required skills (Akukwe, 2009). The skill deficit out-of-school youths is considered to be constraint to a long term economic growth and a contributing factor to incidence of youth unemployment.

Although several attempts have been made at encouraging entrepreneurial activities for out-of-school youths in Enugu state in the past, there is no gain saying the fact that these initiatives failed to produce the desired results. Various constraints such as; poor and lack of accessible road network, inadequate funding, irregular power supply, lack of security, in-depth corruption and lack of basic technological skills have seriously affected the implementation processes of entrepreneurship education programme in Enugu state.

Also, the ability to produce, use knowledge and market products has become major factor in development, and they are critical to a nation’s comparative advantage. Education for a knowledge economy should cultivate the highly skilled, flexible and human capital needed to compete in global markets. With the continuous shift to knowledge-based economy that affects virtually every nation in the world and makes for a more competitive landscape, it is imperative than ever before that we prepare our out-of-school youths for the challenges ahead through entrepreneurship production and marketing skills .

Nigeria occupies the 115th position in the global competitiveness ranking of nations (behind Ghana, Kenya, Liberia and Cameroun) as contained in the Global Competitiveness report for 2012-2013 organized by the World Economic Forum. Though Nigeria’s present ranking is an improvement over previous years, it shows that the level of productivity in Nigeria is relatively very low. Unless effective strategies are utilized to arrest this situation, the future generations and the workforce (out-of-school youths included), will always take the last position in development rankings.

It is therefore, against this background that the researcher examines entrepreneurship education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

 

Purpose of the Study   

The general purpose of this study is to investigate entrepreneurship education on economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Identify the types of entrepreneurship education programmes for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.
  2. Determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced production potentials of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.
  3. Determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced skill acquisition among out-of-school youths in Enugu state.
  4. Determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced marketing potentials of out-of-school youths in Enugu State.
  5. Ascertain the factors militating against the provisions of entrepreneurial education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.
  6. Examine the strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education provision for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study is anchored on human capital theory, propounded by Schultz in 1960s. This theory is of the idea that humans are indispensable factors of production in any business. It is a factor of production along with certain other factors such as land, labour, and capital. But these factors are being activated and utilized by human abilities for maximum productivity. So, without manpower development, other factors and resources in the society will not be harnessed. This theory is in line with the present study, as the study is geared towards equipping the out-of-school youths with the relevant skills needed for effective productivity and self-reliance.

Practically, the findings of this study will be of immense benefit to out-of- school youths, adult education facilitators, curriculum experts, government, further researchers and the entire society. On the side of out-of-school youths, the findings will assist them to be actively engaged in income generating business establishment; which will in turn alleviate poverty and rate of unemployment among them in Enugu State. It will enable them to be creative, innovative and to develop their dormant potentials for business ventures ahead.

Additionally, the findings of this study will be of immense benefit to adult education facilitators. This study will enable them update their knowledge and teaching methods; so that they can provide entrepreneurship education and economic empowerment for different categories of people, including out-of-school youths.

This study will also be of benefit to curriculum experts. The findings will assist them to update and reform entrepreneurship education curriculum for out-of-school youths; from time to time; to meet the dynamism and demands of the national economy and increased productivity. This study will equally ensure that entrepreneurship education are properly infused into the curriculum of all level of education to enable the learners identify viable business opportunities in their area of studies.

On the side of government, the finding of this study will benefit the government by establishing legislation for enhancing entrepreneurship education in for out-of-school youths. Equally; the findings of this study will motivate government to establish small business schools where interested out-of-school youths and community members can participate and their skills enhanced for self reliance.

This study will assist the government to establish an enterprising college aimed at fostering the specific skills such as; marketing skills, production skills and skill acquisition programmes required for effective business management.

Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the study:

  1. What are the types of entrepreneurship education programmes for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths?
  2. To what extent does entrepreneurship education enhanced production potentials among out-of-school youths in Enugu state?
  3. To what extent does entrepreneurship education enhanced skills acquisition of out-of-school youths in Enugu State?
  4. To what extent does entrepreneurship education enhanced marketing potentials of out-of-school youths in Enugu state?
  5. What were the factors militating against the effective provisions of entrepreneurial education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State?
  6. What are the strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State?

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study and will be tested at 0.5 level of significance:

HO1: There will be no significant difference in the mean ratings of male  and female out-of-school youths on the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced skill acquisition for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

HO2: There will be no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female out-of-school youths on the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced marketing potentials for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

 

Scope of the Study

Geographically, the study was carried out in Enugu state. The study was focused on entrepreneurship education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State. The content coverage of this study was limited to some major areas like; examining the types of entrepreneurship programme for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths, extent entrepreneurship education enhance production potentials of out-of-school youths, extent to which entrepreneurship education enhance the skill acquisition of out-of-school youths, extent entrepreneurship education enhance marketing potentials of out-of-school youths, factors militating against the provisions of entrepreneurial education for out-of-school youths and strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education provision for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State.

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Entrepreneurship education is a programme or part of a programme that prepares individuals to undertake the formation and/or operation of small business enterprises which also includes franchise operations for the purpose of performing all business functions relating to a product or service with emphasis on social responsibilities, legal requirements and risks for the sake of profit involved in the conduct of private business enterprises. Entrepreneurship education entails a philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment, promoting new sets of attitudes and culture for the attainment of future challenges (Arogundade, 2011). It involves combination of various resources to increase value and introduce change and innovation into the production process for creating wealth and employment opportunities. Acoording to Osuala (2010), entrepreneurship education could turn around the economic fortune of any society by providing jobs and reducing the unemployment rate in such society. Entrepreneurship could aid people in identifying investment opportunities and also help them to harness untapped natural resources in the environment in order to produce the goods and services needed in the country. These will no doubt reduce or eliminate poverty and help to increase per capita income in the country which is one of the cardinal points of the entrepreneurship ventures.

Entrepreneurship education seeks to prepare people (particularly the youths), to be responsible enterprising individuals who become entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial thinkers by immersing them in real life learning experience thereby taking risks, manage results and learn from the outcome of the entrepreneurial activities (Suleiman, 2010). Through entrepreneurship education, people come to know that they can either take or create jobs which make them to be self-employed. Entrepreneurship education could be given to interested out-of-school youths in Enugu State through workshops, classes, and conferences thereby learning basic ideas of starting their own entrepreneurship businesses and keeping it running.

More so, Ezeilo (2005) in her view, believe that entrepreneurship education equips individuals particularly youths in selecting suitable job positions, and occupations; as well as upgrading skills for those who are already employed in selected occupations. She further commented that re-training programmes suppose to be designed to prepare youths for gainful employment as skilled workers in agriculture, home economics, trade, and industrial occupation .In support of his opinion , Ubah (2013) emphasize that it is through entrepreneurship education that  most rural and urban youths are sensitized and made aware of income generating activities such as; poultry management, mechanized farming, cassava processing,, soap making, basket weaving, and among others. Thus, Agboeze (2012) also emphasize that there are many entrepreneurship education programmes where out-of-school youths are empowered. For instance, there are sociological and technological entrepreneurship education programmes, and more specifically, agricultural/agro-allied activities where there are foodstuffs, restaurants, fast food vending etc. In the area of solid minerals, there are quarrying, polishing and crushing engineering. In power and transport, there are power generations, Haulage business (cargo and passengers). In the area of information and telecommunication   business, there are manufacturing and repairs of GSM accessories and the printing and selling of Recharge cards. In hospitality and tourism business, there are hotels, accommodation, film and home video production; in oil and gas business, there are construction and maintenance of pipelines, drilling, refining bye products.

Mobile technology as part of entrepreneurship education, its introduction and usage are used prolifically in the world today. The innovation has impacted positively on the lives of out-of-school youths more than any other technology. The usage has presented opportunities with different dimensions to all groups of individuals and businesses. Mobile commerce (M-commerce) means all forms of interface between a consumer and a mobile device (Alex 2010), these may also include but not limited to the issuance of electronic coupons and shopping over the internet through a mobile device. Mobile financial services therefore fall under this umbrella such as mobile personal banking and payments.

The construction industry as an aspect of entrepreneurship education in Enugu State has witnessed an overwhelming upsurge in construction contracting dominated by expatriate companies with few indigenous companies (Idoro, 2009). Unfortunately, the period also exposed the country’s indigenous companies to low level of human resources development required for; planning, designing, constructing and maintaining the magnitude (in size and number) of projects conceived by the government. In the area of environmental and waste management business, there is refuse collection/disposal, recycling and drainage/sewage construction job. In the area of financial banking services, there is banking, insurance and stock trading. In engineering and fabrication work, there are machines and tools fabrications. There is also the building and construction, where there are plan and design services for wealth creation among out-of-school youths. These entrepreneurship activities are aimed at making people, to become independent in entrepreneurship activities for economic empowerment and Enugu state which is the focus of this study is not left out. Enugu state has sterling qualities such as; resourcefulness, initiative, drive, imagination, enthusiasm, zest, dash, ambition, energy, boldness, audacity and courage, which are all valuable traits for entrepreneurship development. Supporting this assertion, bennell (2000) maintained that, governments, NGOs and international bodies seeking to improve the livelihood of the youths, could best pursue their empowerment objective by tapping into the innate resources of out-of-school youths, and build on their strong spirit of risk taking through entrepreneurship education which may in turn lead to economic empowerment.

Economic empowerment according to Ogbe (2006) is a way of motivating individuals in the society to be productive and self dependent by inculcating into the individual’s entrepreneurship skills such as personal business initiatives and basic skills in business development. In fact, the best foundation for any business success is to have several possibilities for creating profits. However, profit creation is determined by the choice of the business, self concept, interest, resources, and aspirations which in turn would enable the person to achieve self-development, self-actualization and self fulfillment. Production empowerment according to Idachaba (2006) is the basic focus of entrepreneurship initiatives. It is determined by what the person trained wants to produce, how to produce and whom to produce the goods for. Personal trait and initiative will instinct in the person on what to produce, which depends on the resources available. How to produce the goods depends on the factors of production available to him. Finally to whom such goods are produced for depends on market. Knowledge of the factors of production which determines how the goods are to be produced and to whom they are to be produced can be imbibed mostly through entrepreneurship training and marketing strategies

Marketing of goods and services produced in any economy according to Magbagbola (2004) is one of the crucial attributes of a businessman. This is because it creates in businessmen or women the ability to convince a customer that what have been produced is the best. Acquisition of adequate marketing skill through training enables the entrepreneurs to market their product easily. Usually, different marketing strategies are learnt and are applied to convince the customers of the need to purchase the products. The marketing strategies include effective communication, self confidence and self esteem.

The above empowerment strategies are expected to imbibe in the youths the spirit of craftsmanship and entrepreneurship which makes them job creators instead of job seekers. Empowerment therefore,  is a continuous and life long process and need to be in form of a systematic set of continuous, continued, sustained, never ending (but ever improving) and goal-directed effort. Sharman (2005) in his view said that, empowerment means a degree to which or a process in which the disadvantaged groups define their own needs and determine the response that is made to them e.g. women in the market, the destitute, out-of-school youths etc. All these summarizes that no matter how beautiful a programme is, if it does not meet peoples demand, that means such a programme could not empower people. The use of the word “empowerment” does not mean that people do not posses power already, rather it seeks to see the people as a whole entity or in groups and whose attempts in development process helped from being marginalized and increase their level of participation. Thus, an empowered individual is one, who experiences self confidence and self worth, who critically analyses his/her social and political environment and who is able to exercise control over decision that affect his/her life and business.

Empowerment entails a process of changing the distribution of power both in interpersonal relations and institutions. Thus at individual level, empowerment can be perceived as the ability to direct and control one’s own business. It is the process in which people gain control over their lives, by knowing and claiming their rights at different levels of the society. Knowledge and understanding are part of empowerment. The knowledge of self-awareness, acquiring the visible tools of power and positive self concept cannot be achieved over night (Strongquist, 2006). Empowerment is a continuous process. This means that, each stage in the process of empowerment should be a preparation for the next stage, example economic empowerment.

In Nigeria, Enugu state communities have one of the poorest sets of national development indices. And it is widely believed that the underdevelopment of human capacity (out-of-school youths) is a major factor contributing to underdevelopment of Enugu state (Okonkwo, 2006). Demographic segregation of the population indicates that out-of-school youths form the largest segment of youth population. Hence, development efforts must target and/or capture youthful population to have tangible and meaningful impact. Ubaka (2013) suggests the need for quality entrepreneurship education if the workforces that make up the major part of Nigerian population will acquire appropriate knowledge, attitude, abilities and skills that would make them to be empowered as job creators instead of job seekers.

Across the globe, out-of-school youths are a diverse groups, they may have not completed school, dropped out, or never started school at all (Okoli, 2004). Out-of-school youth may have jobs or no job, married, or may be girls who have been forced to quit school because they need to work in the home, who are pregnant, or have babies. They may be in factories as workers, live on the street, hawk vegetables in the market, stay at home for housework or child care, or are unemployed  in any way at all (Okafor, 2010). These out-of-school youths are male and female that has characteristics or experiences that put them at risk of developing behavioural problems and outcomes that have the potential to harm them, their communities, or even the larger society (Onyia, 2005).  Poor outcomes often develop in home and neighborhood environments that do not provide these out-of-school youths with adequate economic and emotional supports. Groups of vulnerable (or “at-risk”) youths include emancipating foster youths, runaway and homeless youths, youths involved in the juvenile justice system, among others. Like all other youths, out of school youths face a difficult transition to adulthood; however, their transition is further complicated by a number of challenges, including family conflict and obstacles to securing employment that provides adequate wages, and health insurance (Agbionu, 2012). Furthermore, out-of-school youths may also include married adolescents, males and females in rural areas, and girls who got pregnant and had to leave school. In most developing countries, girls are more likely to be out-of-school than boys. Other out-of-school youths live under the most challenging conditions and are marginalized from mainstream services and society. Street children, adolescent sex workers, orphans, child soldiers, and other such groups are mostly, but not always out-of-school youths (Ogbodo, 2009). Some characteristics of out-of-school youths entails never attend school are further subject to violence, isolation and impeded opportunities for development. They are more likely to marry at a younger age and have more children with fewer resources to care for them with limited knowledge of the cost of risky behaviours. With fewer opportunities to participate in productive paid employment, they are often coerced into burdensome and harmful labour (Ahiauzu, 2010). Out-of-school youth have many of the same needs as other youth, including the need for food and shelter, a sense of connection or belonging, skills in problem-solving and life planning, job or vocational training, access to appropriate services, empowerment to take responsibility for their own lives, and information on sexual health issues, including contraception and HIV prevention (Kuratko, 2013). However, different populations of out-of-school youths have specific needs defined by their circumstances. Some out-of-school youths are especially vulnerable and socially marginalized. Their numbers include street children, orphans, migrants, c, refugee children, drug users, gang members, and adolescent sex workers. These young people often have weak or no ties to their families and are not connected to the usual community supports such as schools, faith based organizations, or the formal workplace. They may have been abandoned by their families, lured or abducted from their families, or sold into bonded labour or brothels. In Enugu state, the poverty condition of these category of people forces them to endure situations like discrimination, exploitation, and social isolation that put them at risk of unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use (Olaleye, 2007).

An emerging trend in economic empowerment of out-of-youths in Nigeria is entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship has received increasing recognition as a source of job creation, empowerment for the out-of-school youths and economic dynamism in a rapidly globalizing world. Entrepreneurship is often used for developing enterprising people and inculcating an attitude of self-reliance using appropriate learning processes. Furthermore, entrepreneurship education is a vital key that unlocks the economic potentials to the people. It also empowers and equips out-of-school youths in Enugu State to participate in, and benefit from the national economy; facilitates and provides the basis for all round empowerment (Aluwong, 2010). Entrepreneurship education assumed the importance against the economic empowerment of out-of-youths to fight against their background of poverty, widespread unemployment, crime, violence and the need to shift the attention of the workforce away from white collar jobs and government patronage.

In Nigeria and the world over, entrepreneurship is seen as a key to economic and developmental process. When people are exposed to entrepreneurship, it is evident that they would be opened to opportunities that will enable them to become creative and productive. This will enhance job creation and improve the standard of living of the individuals in the society. Sanda (2010) considered entrepreneurship education as an indispensable ingredient for job creation. He asserts that Nigeria and other countries of the world are seeking to increase the entrepreneurship capacities of their citizens with the understanding that it will contribute to economic growth and development. The Nigerian government recognized that in order to empower young people (between the ages of 18 to 35) economically, there is a need to formulate the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) which aims at transforming its economy and growing small businesses in the country. In spite of all the opportunities offered by the Nigerian government, economically and otherwise, entrepreneurship education has still received little or no attention. Like every other aspect of education and empowerment programmes in Nigeria, entrepreneurship education faces a lot of challenges which inhibits its effectiveness on economic empowerment of out-of-school youths such as poor and lack of accessible road network, inadequate funding, irregular power supply, lack of security, in-depth corruption and lack of basic technological skills. Hence, the need for this study, which seeks to assess the extent entrepreneurship education enhance economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

Statement of the Problem

The present rate of unemployment in Enugu state is threatening. The desire to provide employment in the state is one of the major aspirations of the government. The government has over the years evolved measures of providing job opportunities both at the federal and state levels. The jobs being provided seems not to be enough as a result of the teeming population in the state. The inability of the government to provide adequate job opportunities has rather made some youths (out-of-school youths) take to armed robbery; kidnapping; prostitution and other social vices, which have made them become deviants in the society, and has in turn led to insecurity in the nation. This may be because the out-of-school youths are not informed on the types of entrepreneurship programmes to be embarked upon, and therefore, calls for entrepreneurship education programme.

The unacceptable rate of youth unemployment in the country, the low standard of living and the hope of technological transfer which is tending towards a mirage may be because of poor production capacity of the workforce,  have led to a renewed interest in entrepreneurship education programme for out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

Also, Shortage of skills remains a serious problem in Enugu State. Over 80% of the youths in Enugu State are unemployed simply because they do not have the required skills (Akukwe, 2009). The skill deficit out-of-school youths is considered to be constraint to a long term economic growth and a contributing factor to incidence of youth unemployment.

Although several attempts have been made at encouraging entrepreneurial activities for out-of-school youths in Enugu state in the past, there is no gain saying the fact that these initiatives failed to produce the desired results. Various constraints such as; poor and lack of accessible road network, inadequate funding, irregular power supply, lack of security, in-depth corruption and lack of basic technological skills have seriously affected the implementation processes of entrepreneurship education programme in Enugu state.

Also, the ability to produce, use knowledge and market products has become major factor in development, and they are critical to a nation’s comparative advantage. Education for a knowledge economy should cultivate the highly skilled, flexible and human capital needed to compete in global markets. With the continuous shift to knowledge-based economy that affects virtually every nation in the world and makes for a more competitive landscape, it is imperative than ever before that we prepare our out-of-school youths for the challenges ahead through entrepreneurship production and marketing skills .

Nigeria occupies the 115th position in the global competitiveness ranking of nations (behind Ghana, Kenya, Liberia and Cameroun) as contained in the Global Competitiveness report for 2012-2013 organized by the World Economic Forum. Though Nigeria’s present ranking is an improvement over previous years, it shows that the level of productivity in Nigeria is relatively very low. Unless effective strategies are utilized to arrest this situation, the future generations and the workforce (out-of-school youths included), will always take the last position in development rankings.

It is therefore, against this background that the researcher examines entrepreneurship education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

 

Purpose of the Study   

The general purpose of this study is to investigate entrepreneurship education on economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Identify the types of entrepreneurship education programmes for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.
  2. Determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced production potentials of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.
  3. Determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced skill acquisition among out-of-school youths in Enugu state.
  4. Determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced marketing potentials of out-of-school youths in Enugu State.
  5. Ascertain the factors militating against the provisions of entrepreneurial education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.
  6. Examine the strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education provision for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study is anchored on human capital theory, propounded by Schultz in 1960s. This theory is of the idea that humans are indispensable factors of production in any business. It is a factor of production along with certain other factors such as land, labour, and capital. But these factors are being activated and utilized by human abilities for maximum productivity. So, without manpower development, other factors and resources in the society will not be harnessed. This theory is in line with the present study, as the study is geared towards equipping the out-of-school youths with the relevant skills needed for effective productivity and self-reliance.

Practically, the findings of this study will be of immense benefit to out-of- school youths, adult education facilitators, curriculum experts, government, further researchers and the entire society. On the side of out-of-school youths, the findings will assist them to be actively engaged in income generating business establishment; which will in turn alleviate poverty and rate of unemployment among them in Enugu State. It will enable them to be creative, innovative and to develop their dormant potentials for business ventures ahead.

Additionally, the findings of this study will be of immense benefit to adult education facilitators. This study will enable them update their knowledge and teaching methods; so that they can provide entrepreneurship education and economic empowerment for different categories of people, including out-of-school youths.

This study will also be of benefit to curriculum experts. The findings will assist them to update and reform entrepreneurship education curriculum for out-of-school youths; from time to time; to meet the dynamism and demands of the national economy and increased productivity. This study will equally ensure that entrepreneurship education are properly infused into the curriculum of all level of education to enable the learners identify viable business opportunities in their area of studies.

On the side of government, the finding of this study will benefit the government by establishing legislation for enhancing entrepreneurship education in for out-of-school youths. Equally; the findings of this study will motivate government to establish small business schools where interested out-of-school youths and community members can participate and their skills enhanced for self reliance.

This study will assist the government to establish an enterprising college aimed at fostering the specific skills such as; marketing skills, production skills and skill acquisition programmes required for effective business management.

Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the study:

  1. What are the types of entrepreneurship education programmes for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths?
  2. To what extent does entrepreneurship education enhanced production potentials among out-of-school youths in Enugu state?
  3. To what extent does entrepreneurship education enhanced skills acquisition of out-of-school youths in Enugu State?
  4. To what extent does entrepreneurship education enhanced marketing potentials of out-of-school youths in Enugu state?
  5. What were the factors militating against the effective provisions of entrepreneurial education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State?
  6. What are the strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State?

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study and will be tested at 0.5 level of significance:

HO1: There will be no significant difference in the mean ratings of male  and female out-of-school youths on the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced skill acquisition for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

HO2: There will be no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female out-of-school youths on the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced marketing potentials for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu state.

 

Scope of the Study

Geographically, the study was carried out in Enugu state. The study was focused on entrepreneurship education for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State. The content coverage of this study was limited to some major areas like; examining the types of entrepreneurship programme for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths, extent entrepreneurship education enhance production potentials of out-of-school youths, extent to which entrepreneurship education enhance the skill acquisition of out-of-school youths, extent entrepreneurship education enhance marketing potentials of out-of-school youths, factors militating against the provisions of entrepreneurial education for out-of-school youths and strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education provision for economic empowerment of out-of-school youths in Enugu State.

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