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ABSTRACT

An Ethnobotanical survey was carried-out among the Bajju speaking community of Kaduna state Nigeria from May 2015 to January 2016, to discover and identify plants used in the treatment of Malaria. Respondents in the survey included; Traditional medical practitioners, herbal sellers and farmers. In all 352 respondents were interviewed out of a slated 500, of which 60% of the respondents were male while 40% were female. It was also recorded that 26% of respondents were between ages 18 and 30, 36% between 31 and 45, 26% between 46 and 59, while 12% were 60 years and above. The research also revealed that only 6% of the surveyed population were traditional medical practitioners, 20% were herbal sellers, with the bulk of respondents being farmers with 34%, other occupations made up the remaining percentage.
Fourteen (14) different species representing twelve (12) families of plants used in the treatment of malaria were obtained. These plants include; Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Rutaceae), Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn. F (Sapotaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Detarium microcarpum Guill &Perr (Caesalpinaceae) Sterculia setigera . Delile (Sterculiaceae) Senna occidentalis L (Fabaceae), among others. The most common plant part used for preparation of herbal malaria remedies are the leaves, where they are mostly taken orally as a water decoction or concoction. Plants obtained from the survey also have other medicinal uses ranging from Stomach ache, Acne, Typhoid, Diarrhea, Rheumatism, and Hypertension. Phytochemical studies of selected plants reveal the presence of Saponins, Flavonoids, Anthraquinones and Alkaloids all of which have been linked to be effective against the malaria parasite. In conclusion the survey revealed that medicinal plants are used extensively in the treatment of malaria among the Bajju people, and most of these plants have been domesticated for easy access.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgment v
Abstract vi
Table of Content vii
List of Tables xii
List of Figures xiii
List of Plates xiv
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CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 The Bajju Community of Kaduna State. 3
1.2.1 Location. 3
1.2.2 Origin 3
1.2.3 Language, economy and occupation 3
1.2.4 Study site 4
1.3 Statement of Research Problem 6
1.4 Justification 6
1.5 General aim 7
1.5.1 Specific objectives 7
1.6 Research questions 8
CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 Malaria 9
2.1.1 Definition and History of Malaria 9
2.1.2 Brief History of Malaria 10
2.1.3 Transmission of Malaria 12
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2.1.4 Classification of Plasmodium 13
2.1.5 Life Cycle of Plasmodium 14
2.2 Prevalence of Malaria 16
2.2.1 Prevalence of Malaria in Africa 18
2.2.2 Prevalence of Malaria in Nigeria 18
2.3 Malaria Treatment and Control 18
2.3.1 Economic Burden and Treatment of Malaria 18
2.3.2 Current Treatment of Malaria 19
2.3.3 Limitation of current treatment of malaria 20
2.3.4 Prophylaxis of Malaria 20
2.3.5 Antimalarial Drug Resistance 22
2.3.6 Mechanisms of antimalarial resistance 22
2.4 Traditional Medicine 23
2.5 Traditional Knowledge of Malaria and Its Treatment 23
2.5.1 Traditional knowledge of Malaria and its treatment in Nigeria 25
CHAPTER THREE – MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.0 Introduction 32
3.1 Materials 32
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3.2 Method 33
3.2.1 Ethnobotanical survey 33
3.2.1.1 Study area 33
3.2.1.2 Study Population 33
3.2.1.3 Sampling technique 35
3.2.1.4 Method of Data Collection 35
3.2.1.5 Pilot study 36
3.2.1.6 Face validity for Pilot study (bilingual method) 36
3.2.1.7 Face validation for main survey 36
3.2.1.8 Method of Data Presentation 37
3.2.2 Collection of Plants 37
3.2.2.1 Procedure for Collection 37
3.2.2.2 Preparation of Herbarium Specimen, Identification and Authentication. 37
3.2.2.3 Herbarium specimen label 38
3.2.3 Procedure for identification and authentication 38
3.2.4 Phytochemical Studies 38
3.2.4.1 Extraction Procedure 39 3.2.4.2 Phytochemical Screening 39
3.2.4.3 Procedure for Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis 42
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CHAPTER FOUR – RESULTS
4.1 Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants used in the treatment of Malaria 44
4.2 Traditional Medicinal plants used in the treatment of Malaria, 51
among the Bajju Speaking community of Kaduna State.
4.3 Selection of Medicinal Plants with potential Antimalarial activity 60
4.4 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening 64
4.5 Thin Layer Chromatographic Profile of selected plants 65
CHAPTER FIVE – DISCUSSION 71-79
CHAPTER SIX – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Summary 80
6.2 Conclusion 81
6.3 Recommendation 82
REFERENCES 84-94
APPENDIX – ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY SHEET 95-99
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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Ethnobotany encompasses the entirety of the relationship developed by man with plants; this relationship has existed for thousands of years. The term ethnobotany was not coined until 1895, but its history began long before that period (Lans, 2006). Theophrastus the father of botany wrote about plants and their medicinal uses, also the Greek surgeon Pedanius Dioscorides published De materia medica which was a catalog of about 600 plants used medicinally for various infections in the Mediterranean (Betti, 2004).
It was Richard Evans (1989) that defined ethnobotany as the study of the human relationship with plant materials and the evaluation and manipulation of these plant materials, substances and phenomenon (Manzoor et al., 2006).
Ethnobotany is an integrative, multi-disciplinary field of learning. So the tools of ethnobotanical investigations are many: botany, mycology (the study of fungi), taxonomy (ways of categorizing), anthropology, ethnography, archaeology, comparative folklore, religious studies, medicine, chemistry, pharmacology (uses and effects of chemicals in plants), and more. Some of the psychoactive species and their lore carry us deep into realms of ritual, mythology and cosmology. Sometimes, in ethnobotanical inquiry, we call upon ancient history, or colonial socio-economic histories, or even examine the roots of our modern social movements (Soejarto, 2005). But it is also worthy of note that of the hundreds of thousands of species of living plant, only a fraction has been investigated in the laboratory (Hussaine and Khaliq,1996).
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The importance of an ethnobotanical inquiry as a cost-effective means of locating new and useful plant compounds cannot be over emphasized. Most of the so-called secondary plant metabolites employed in modern medicines were first discovered through ethnobotanical investigations (Olubre et al., 1997).
It was reported that out of a total number of 119 pure chemical compounds in use, extracted from higher plants used in medicine throughout the world, 74% have the same or related use as the plants from which they were developed (Farnsworth et al., 1985). The periwinkle plant Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) represents a clinical example of the importance of plants used by local people, for the cure of various diseases. This herbaceous plant, native to southern Madagascar, is the source of over 75 alkaloids, two (Vincristine and Vinblastine) of which are clinical used to treat childhood leukaemia and hodgkin’s disease. Like Catharanthus, many drugs that are commonly used today e.g. aspirin, ephedrine, erogmetrine, tubocurarine, digoxin, reserpine, atropine etc. came through the indigenous use of medicine (Farnsworth, et al., 1985).
Therefore it can be seen that the investigation of plants use for medicinal purposes by indigenous people can conveniently provide new biodynamic compounds that may have important applications in our society. In many cases, developing countries like Nigeria cannot continue to spend millions of dollars on imported medicine. Several African and Asian nations are encouraging traditional medicines as an integral component of their public health care program (WHO, 2002).
This research work has comprise of among others, an ethnobotanical survey of plants used in the treatment of malaria among the Bajju people of Kaduna State.
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1.2 The Bajju Community of Kaduna State.
1.2.1 Location.
The Bajju people commonly called Kaje or Kache are located approximately 9.6-10.10 North, 7.8-8.20 East, north central savannah region of Nigeria, with an estimated population of 300, 000 to 480,000 (Nordhoff et al., 2013).
The Bajju community spans the length of 5 local governments of Kaduna state, they are; Zango Kataf, Kachia, Jaba, Jema’a and Chukun (Kazah, 2012).
The headquarters of the chiefdom is in Zonkwa, Zangon Kataf Local government area of Kaduna State (McKinney, 1992).
1.2.2 Origin
The Bajju people are believed to have migrated from a place within the present day Zamfara State Nigeria. They successfully settled in Bauchi and Plateau States of Nigeria, before finally settling in Dibiyi Kurmin-bi in present day Kaduna state.
The father of the Bajju kingdom; Baranzan is believed to have his genealogy in Niger and Cameroon (Asake, 1991).
1.2.3 Language, economy and occupation
The Bajju people are known to be great farmers and hunters. The language of the Bajju people is called Jju and this language is spoken in all the districts that comprise the Bajju kingdom (McKinney, 1992).
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The economy and occupation of the people showed that the Bajju people are mainly small scale, subsistence farmers, 80-90% of the population rely on agriculture for their daily up-keep (Lewis, 2003)
1.2.4 Study site
The study site (Bajju community) as started above lies between latitude 9.6-10.10 North and longitude 7.8-8.20 East. North central savannah region of Nigeria. (McKinney, 1992) This site covers five (5) local government areas of Kaduna state. Which are; Zongon kataf, Kachia, Jaba, Jema’a and Chikun as shown in Fig 1.1 below.
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Figure 1.1: Map of Kaduna State showing the Study Area
Source: Modified from the Administrative Map of Kaduna State, Kaduna state National library, Document 237-1.
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1.3 Statement of research problem
Malaria is a serious infectious disease that is causing about 2.7million deaths each year worldwide; with 75% of this deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa and mostly young children and pregnant women (WHO, 2012)
Malaria has exerted a significant economic toll in affected areas, reducing economic growth in Africa by up to 1.3% each year. In Nigeria about 50% of the adult population experience at least one episode of malaria attack each year, while children who are under 5 years of age have 2 to 4 attacks annually (FMOH, 2005a). It is responsible for 30% of childhood mortality and 11% maternal mortality each year. More than 60% of out-patient visit in Nigeria is due to malaria (FMOH, 2005a).
The disease has affected the country’s economy also, with about 134 billion naira lost to the disease, as cost of treatment and loss in man-hours from 2003 to 2005 (FMOH, 2005b).
Antimalarial drug resistance has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing malaria control today, the resistance has been implicated in the spread of malaria to new areas and re-emergence of malaria in areas where the disease had been eradicated (WHO, 2001).
1.4 Justification
There have been strong claims by traditional medicinal practitioners of Bajju community of their ability to effectively treat malaria fever with the use of various plant species found in their locality. These claims stimulated the interest to gather and document information on these medicinal plants.
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It has become necessary to share some of the traditional medicinal knowledge of the Bajju people with other communities in the region.
The findings of this research will provide a platform for further research on any lead medicinal plant obtained.
An extensive literature review, using available resources reveals that there has been no ethno-botanical survey carried out for the Bajju community, even though the people rely heavily on plant resources for their healthcare needs, especially for the treatment of malaria, it is believed that traditional medicinal practitioners of Bajju are well vast in the knowledge of traditional cures of various diseases. However today, like most rural communities, modernity and the infiltration of other cultural values is fast affecting the transfer of some to these traditional medicinal knowledge. Therefore to avoid the extinction of the knowledge and the people practicing them it has become important to document such information
1.5 General Aim
The objective of this research work is to carry-out an ethnobotanical survey of plants used in the treatment of malaria among the Bajju people of Kaduna state; as well as carry-out phytochemical analysis on some selected plants obtained from the research.
1.5.1 Specific objectives
1. To conduct an ethnobotanical survey of plant used in the treatment of malaria among the Bajju speaking community of Kaduna state.
2. To identify, collect, authenticate and document plants used in the treatment of malaria used by the Bajju community, in other to establish a plant data base.
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3. To produce standard herbarium specimen for some selected plants collected.
4. To conduct phytochemical analysis on three (3) most reoccurring plants from the survey
1.6 Research Questions
Will an ethnobotanical survey identify and document plants claimed by traditional medicinal practitioners and community individuals of Bajju community in treatment of malaria.
Will the ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants among the Bajju community produce plants other than those already identified and documented?
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