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Download this complete Project material titled; Ethnobotanical Survey Of Plants Used In Treatment Of Viral Infections In Jos, And Antiviral Evaluations Of Boswellia Dalzielli Hutch (Burseraceae) And Enantia Chlorantha Oliver (Annonaceae) with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

An ethnobotanical survey of plants used in the treatment of viral infection was carried out in Jos North, Jos South and Jos East Local Government Areas of Plateau State, Nigeria by verbal interactions with Traditional Medicine Practitioners, Herbalist, Herb sellers and some indigenes/residents, being guided by a structured questionnaire. The study aimed at collecting and documenting medicinal plants used in the treatment of viral infections like common cold, measles, chickenpox, rabies, birdflu, hepatitis and HIV, within Jos. Pharmacognostic, phytochemical, antiviral and hepatoprotective were carried out on the two most used plants from the survey -Boswellia dalzielii stem bark and leaf and Enantia chlorantha stem bark. An invivo hepatoprotective assay of methanol extracts was analysed in liver injured CCl4 – treated rats. Biochemical parameters including Aspartate amino transaminase (ASAT), Alanine amino transaminase (ALAT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total proteins, albumin, total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin in serum were analysed. The biochemical findings were supported with histopathological examination. The extracts of were also subjected to in ovo antiviral activity against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). A total of 64 medicinal plants species, represented by 62 genera from 39 families were obtained. Cell wall materials, cell inclusions and other diagnostic characters that can aid in the easy and proper identification of E. chlorantha were identified. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves and stem bark of B. dalzielii showed the presence of carbohydrate, cardiac glycoside, steroid, triterpene, tannins and flavonoids. E. chlorantha stem bark, revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, steriods, and triterpenes. The methanol extracts of the two selected plants were found to be safe both in phase one and two of acute toxicity evaluation, with the highest dose of 3000 mg/kg, except for the leaf extract of B. dalzielii that showed
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toxicity at dose of 3000 mg/kg alone. Biochemical parameters obtained from the hepatoprotective assay showed no significant difference with that of the toxicant control .The activity of NDV was inhibited at lower concentrations for the three methanol extracts tested. These current findings have revealed and documented for the first time, medicinal plants used in treatment of viral infections in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. This information will be beneficial in public health, research and in providing lead to plants that can be useful in drug discovery.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page – – – – – – – – – –
i
Title page – – – – – – – – – –
ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – —
iii
Certification – – – – – – – – – –
iv
Dedication – – – – – – – – – –
v
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – –
vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – –
vii
Table of contents – – – – – – – – –
ix
List of tables – – – – – – – – – –
xiv
List of figures – – – – – – – –
xv
x
– –
List of plates – – – – – – – – – –
xvi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0
Introduction
1
1.1
Background of the study – – – – – –
1
1.2
Phytogeography – – – – – – –
3
1.2.1
Location – – – – – – – – –
3
1.2.2
Climate – – – – – – – –
6
1.2.3
Vegetation – – – – – – – –
6
1.2.4
Agriculture – – – – – – – –
6
1.2.5
Language and culture – – – – – – –
6
1.3
Typical traditional Medicine practice in Plateau state –
7
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– –
1.4
Research Statement Problem – – – – – – –
7
1.4
The Need for Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the
treatment of viral infection in Jos, Plateau state – – – – –
7
1.5
Research Question – – – – – – – – –
10
1.6
Justification – – – – – – – – – –
11
1.7
Aims – – – – – – – – – – –
12
1.8
Objectives of the study – – – – – – – –
12
1.9
Hypothesis – – – – – – – – –
12
CHAPTER TWO
2.0
Literature Review – – – – – – – –
13
2.1
Viruses – – – – – – –
13
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– –
2.2
Pathogenesis of viral disease – – – – – –
14
2.3
New Castle Disease Virus (NDV) – – – – – –
15
2.4
Antiviral potential of medicinal plants – – – – –
15
2.5
An Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in treating viral infections-
18
2.6
Future Prospects – – – – – – – –
20
CHAPTER THREE
3.0
Materials and methods – – – – – – –
21
3.1
Materials and Instrument used- – – – – – –
21
3.2
Ethnobotanical survey – – – – – – –
23
3.2.1
Collection and Documentation of information on medicinal plants – –
23
3.2.2
Study population – – – – – – –
23
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3.2.3
Sampling Technique – – – – – – – –
23
3.2.4
Method of Data Selection and Collection – – – – –
23
3.2.5
Data Collection Procedure – – – – – – –
24
3.2.6
Plant collection, Identification and Authentication – – – –
25
3.2.7
Herbarium Specimen Preparation – – – – –
25
3.2.8
Data Analysis – – – – – – – – –
26
3.3
Pharmacognostic studies of the selected plants – – – –
26
3.3.1
Preparation of plant material – – – – – – –
26
3.3.2
Microscopical Examination – – – – – – –
26
3.3.3
Chemomicroscopy – – – – – – – –
27
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3.4
Determination of Physiochemical Parameters – – – –
28
3.4.1
Moisture content – – – – – – – –
28
3.4.2
Total ash value – – – – – – – –
29
3.4.3
Extractive Values – – – – – – – –
29
3.5
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening – – – – –
30
3.5.1
Extraction Procedure – – – – – – – –
30
3.5.2
Procedures for Phytochemical Screening – – – – –
30
3.6
Hepatoprotective assay – – – – – – – –
34
3.6.1
Extraction of plant material – – – – – – –
34
3.6.2
Acute Toxicity – – – – – – – –
34
3.7
Invivo Hepatoprotective Test – – – – –
35
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– –
3.7.1
Experimental Design – – – – – – – –
35
3.7.2
Experimental procedure – – – – – – –
36
3.7.3
Data Analysis – – – – – – – – –
37
3.8
Antiviral assay – – – – – – – –
37
3.8.1
Source of virus and 9-Day Old Embryonated Chicken Eggs – – –
37
3.8.2
Determination of Median Embryo Infectious Dose (EID50) of the virus – – – – – –
37
3.8.2.1
Preparation of viral dilution
38
3.8.2.2
Preparation of embryonated eggs
38
3.8.3
Preparation of inoculum (virus/extract mixture) – – – –
39
3.8.4
Inoculation of eggs – – – – – – –
40
3.8.5
Spot haemagglutination test – – – – – – –
40
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3.8.6
Data Analysis – – – – – – – – –
40
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0
Results – – – – – – – – – – –
41
4.1
Results of ethnobotanical survey – – – – – – –
41
4.2
Response rate – – – – – – – – – –
41
4.3
Distribution of informant‟s age – – – – – – –
42
4.4
Distribution of respondents based on their practice – – – – –
43
4.5
Medicinal plants used in the treatment of viral infections in Jos, Plateau State
44
4.6
Recipes – – – – – – – – – –
62
4.7
Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Enantia chloratha Oliv. Stembark and Boswellia dalzielli Hutch. Leaves and stembark – – – –
73
4.7.1
Microscopical examination of Enantia chloratha Oliv. Stembark
73
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– –
4.7.2
Physical constants of the powdered Stem bark of Enantia chloratha Oliv.and Leaves and stembark Boswellia dalzielli Hutch. – – – –
75
4.8
Results of Preliminary Phytochemical Screening – – – – –
76
4.9
Acute-toxicity study – – – – – – – –
76
4.10
Hepatoprotective assay – – – – – – –
78
4.11
Antiviral assay – – – – – – —
80
4.11.1
EID50 (50 percent Embryo Infectious Dose) – – – – – –
80
4.11.2
Results of antiviral activity of B. dalzielli methanol leaf extract against NDV –
84
4.11.3
Results of antiviral activity of B. dalzielli methanol stem bark extract against NDV – – – – – – – – – –
86
4.11.4
Results of antiviral activity of E. chlorantha methanol stem bark extract against NDV – – – – – – –
88
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– – –
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0
Discussion – – – – – – – – –
90
CHAPTER SIX
6.0
Summary, conclusion and recommendation – – – – –
98
REFERENCES – – – – – – – –
101
APPENDIX I- ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY SHEET – – –
113
APPENDIX II- IMAGES OF MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION OF ENANTIA CHLORANTHA STEM BARK POWDER- – – – –
119
APPENDIX III- IMAGES OF EQUIPMENTS USED FOR ANTIVIRAL ASSAY- – – – – – – – –
122
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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Since the origin of human civilization on earth, medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of diseases and infection, including viral infections (Mukhtar et al, 2008).
In many developing countries, 70% to 80% of the population have some form of alternative or complementary medicine. This population also depends on traditional medicine for primary health care (WHO, 2008). Traditional medicine has increased significantly in industrialised countries, due to the fact that many prescription drugs have originated from the tropical flora (Nelson-Harrison et al., 2002).
Nigeria is endowed with many medicinal plants, both domesticated and wild. Like every other developing country, majority of its population depend on these plants to meet their health needs (Oladunmoye and Kehinde 2011). The medicinal uses of the plants may vary from one community to another or even from one culture to another.
Ethnobotany was defined by Kim (2007) “as the study of how people of particular cultures and regions make use of the plants in their local environments. These uses can include as food, medicines, fuel, and shelter and in many cultures, in religious ceremonies.”
The aim of ethnobotany is to document, describe and explain complex relationships between culture and uses of plants for food, clothing, currency, ritual, medicine, cosmetics etc across human societies (Acharya and Shrivastava, 2008).
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Ethnomedicine is a subfield of Ethnobotany that deals with the study of traditional medicines especially, for those whose practice and knowledge has been orally passed down from generation to generation (Acharya and Shrivastava, 2008).
A great deal of information about traditional use of plants are still intact with the tribal. (Sood, 2001) However, the native healers are often reluctant to accurately share their knowledge with an outsider.
Ethnobotanical survey is very important in the continuous search for natural plant products as medicines (Ogbole et al., 2010). It also serves as a major approach for selecting plants for pharmacological screening (Igoli et al., 2005). In addition, ethnomedicinal uses of plants remain one of the most successful criteria in finding new therapeutic agents by Pharmaceutical industries (Cox and Balick, 1994). Plants have been found useful in treating many microbial diseases in man and animals as caused by bacteria and viruses.
Viral infection is one of the world‟s most transmissible diseases. This is because it is almost always followed by a secondary bacterial infection. However available antiviral and vaccines have shown good results (WHO, 1983). The high cost of available antiviral drugs and their toxic side effects, viral resistance coupled with viral latency and conflicting efficacy in recurrent infection in immunocompromised patients have made viral disease remain a major and continuous burden for researchers. Hence, the need for search for new antiviral compounds from plants that is safe, effective, which overcomes resistance and less toxic ( Ngono Ngare et al., 2011) .
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However, recent studies‟ showing antiviral potential of plant extract against viral strains resistant to conventional antiviral agents, has challenged modern drug discovery practices, and tends towards exploring medicinal plants with antiviral constituents (Mukhtar et al., 2008).
1.2 Phytogeography
Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species and their influence on the earth’s surface. Phytogeography is concerned with every aspects of plant distribution, from the controls on the distribution of individual species ranges (at both large and small scales), to the factors that govern the composition of entire communities and floras. In order to study medicinal plants of Jos Plateau, a brief description of its geography will be appropriate.
1.2.1 Location
The Jos Plateau is a plateau that lies between latitudes 80 22ˊ and 100 24ˊ North and longitudes 80 32ˊ and 100 38ˊ East. Thus, Plateau State which derives its name from the Jos Plateau is located right in the centre of Nigeria-North central zone . The plateau has given its name to the State and the state’s capital is Jos. It covers 8600 km² and bounded by 300-600 meter escarpments around much of its circumference. With an average altitude of 1280 meters and a high point of 1829 meters in the Shere Hills . The State shares common boundaries with the following states: Nasarawa, in the South West, Kaduna in
29
the North West, Bauchi in the North East and Taraba in the South East (see Figure 1.1).
30
Figure 1.1: Map of Nigeria, showing Plateau State
Source: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Laboratory, Department of Geography and Planning, University of Jos (2011)
31
Figure 1.2: Map of Plateau, State showing study Areas
Source: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Laboratory, Department of Geography and Planning, University of Jos (2011)
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1.2.2 Climate
The Jos – Plateau is the Upper part, and the Northern highland area of Plateau State, with a near temperate type. Weather conditions are warm during the rainy season (April-October) and cold during the Harmattan period (December-February). The mean annual temperatures in the state range between 200 and 250 centigrade, while the mean annual rainfall figures range from 131.75cm in the Northern part to 146cm in the Southern part (Plateau State Government, 2007).
1.2.3 Vegetation
The broad vegetation cover of Plateau State is in the Guinea savannah with short trees and tall grasses. Near some villages are thick hedges of cactus planted around households or farmsteads or compounds. Fringing woodlands or gallery forests can be found along some river systems. Most of the natural vegetation has been tampered with as a result of human activities especially, farming and mining.
1.2.4 Agriculture
Agriculture is the main stay of the economy, with about 80% of the population engaged in farming in almost all the rural areas. Plateau state has 2,714,700ha of land (Plateau State Government, 2007). About 1.5 million hectares is under cultivation and over two third of the land is arable.
1.2.5 Language and culture
The Jos Plateau lies in the Nigerian middle belt, and this region known for cultural diversity, it is unusually diverse. Barbour et al. (1982) show over 60 ethno-linguistic
33
groups on the Plateau. Most of the Plateau’s languages are in the Chadic family (Isichei, 1982), which is part of the Afro-Asiatic phylum. Two of the Plateau’s largest ethnic groups are the Berom, in the northern Plateau, and the Angas in the southeast. Smaller groups include the Mwaghavul, Pyem, Ron, Eggon, Chokfem, and Kofyar.
1.3 Typical traditional Medicine practice in Plateau state
The Traditional medicine Practitioners in Plateau, practice different form of traditional medicine, the most common is herbal medicine. Some of their practices involve incantation, prayers and consultation of oracle.
1.4 Research Statement Problem
1.4.1 The Need for Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of viral infection in Jos, Plateau state.
Survey and documentation of a country‟s or community‟s natural resources is an important prerequisite for proper utilization of its raw materials. Full knowledge of various plants is necessary, so as to enhance proper utilization (Choudhary et al., 2008).
These natural resources are being threatened by Environmental and cultural changes, therefore serious measure have to be taken to ensure that medicinal plants in the natural ecosystems and other suitable environments are conserved. This can be achieved through Ethnobotanical studies (Tesfaye et al., 2009).
The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages and supports developing countries to identify and provide quality, safe and effective remedies and practices for
34
use in the public and private health services. Various resolutions passed by the WHO at various levels indicate that:
i. Most of the world’s population depends on traditional medicine for primary healthcare;
ii. The workforce represented by the practitioners of traditional medicine is a potentially important resource for the delivery of health care;
iii. Medicinal plants are of great importance to the health of individuals and communities ( Sofowora, 2008)
Indigenous people have long history and expertise in the use of medicinal plants, but information on these plants and their uses is mainly passed from one generation to the other orally and even to date is poorly documented (Gurib-Fakim, 2006). The main obstacle to the acceptance of traditional medicine in developed countries is the lack of documentation and stringent quality control (Thomas et al., 2008). The lack of an organized documentation for medicinal plant knowledge may also contribute to the loss of medicinal plant knowledge, particularly for plants that are neglected or non-preferred (Musa et al., 2011).
Like every communities in the developing nation, the people of Plateau state depend on medicinal plants to meet their domestic and health needs. Majority of rural communities depend on traditional medicine, while most urban settlements depend on orthodox medicine due to civilization and modernization. Most of the plants used by these people are obtained from the wild; hence there is a problem of extinction and dissemination of the flora of this area. This calls for urgent conservation of the biodiversity. There is also the problem of
35
holding information on use of plants as secrets due to distrust of researchers by traditional medicines practitioners because of previous bad experiences, the desire to pass down information to offspring, family members alone, and avoidance of competition in the practice. Eventually these people get older and die, resulting into lost of vital information (Sofowora, 2008).
Therefore, in order to preserve the medicinal plants knowledge on their uses, there is need for Ethnobotanical survey of the area.
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1.5 Research Question
The following research question was raised for the study:
1. Can ethnobotanical findings and documentation of medicinal plant lead to discovery of medicinal plants with interesting pharmacological activities, especially antiviral medicinal plants?
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1.6 Justification
Traditional Medicine Practitioners, Herbalist, Herb sellers and even indigenes within the Jos- Plateau have claims that some medicinal plants within their environment have been used effectively over time in the treatment of viral infections. These claims stimulated the interest to gather and document information on these medicinal plants and selection of two plants to test for antiviral activity so as to provide scientific bases, for these practices in traditional treatment of viral infections, and possible development of new and effective antiviral agent(s).
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1.7 Aims
The overall aim of this study is to survey the medicinal plants used in the treatment of viral infections and to carry out antiviral evaluation of Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. and Enantia chlorantha Oliver.
1.8 Objectives of the study
i. To collect and document medicinal plants used within Jos for treatment of viral infections
ii. To carry out pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical screenings of two most commonly used plants during the survey; Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. (Stem bark and leaf) and Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (stembark)
iii. To study the antiviral and hepatoprotective properties of the crude extract of two most commonly used plants during the survey; Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. (Stem bark and leaf) and Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (Stem bark)
1.9 Hypothesis
Medicinal plants used in treatment of viral infection within Jos metropolis may have constituents with antiviral properties.
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