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Download this complete Project material titled; Ethnopharmacological And Phytochemical Properties Of Some Plants Used In The Management Of Pain with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

Pain is a worldwide problem and is associated with most disease conditions. The properties of herbs used to treat pain were investigated with the aim of confirming their use and finding out some pharmacological properties that may augment their analgesic activity. A total of eighteen plants (Erythrina senegalesis, Nauclea latifollia, Kizelia africana, Pseudocedrela kotchyi, Crotalaris spp., Boswellia dalzielli, Khaya senegalensis, Annona senegalensis, Xylopia aethiopica, Ficus thonningii, Cassia goratensis, Prosopis Africana, Stachytapheta indica, Crinum glaucum, Holerrhena floribunda, Momordica balsamina, Enantia Chlorantha and Sarcocephalus esculentus) were collected and identified out of which nine plants (S. esculentus, C. goratensis, F. thonningii, P. kotschyi, E. chlorantha, N. latifolia, M. balsamina, S. indica, P. africana) were selected for study for possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities after preliminary investigations (using writhing reflex test). Analgesic activities were studied using acetic acid induced writhing reflex and hot plate method. Anti-inflammatory activities were conducted using egg albumin induced right paw oedema method. The study revealed that all the nine plants studied had peripheral and / or central analgesic activities. They also poses anti-inflammatory activities. Phytochemical analysis showed that majority of these plants contains flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The intraperitoneal LD50 revealed that the plants are safe for consumption except N. latifolia and S. indica with LD50 0.80 and 0.15 g /Kg respectively. Oral LD50 (LD50 greater than 7.00 g /Kg) revealed that S. indica is safe for oral consumption. Sub acute toxicity test showed that M. balsamina has no significant (P>0.05) effect on vital organs, haematological and biochemical parameter. M. balsamina was also effective in tail flick and formalin test models of analgesia, this indicates that it is effective in the management of peripheral and centrally induced pain. Further study also showed that M. balsamina has hypotensive, anti-diarrhoeal (castor oil and guinea pig ileum models), shorting of onset of Urethane induced sleep, prolongation of urethane induced sleeping time, but not anti-convulsive effects. S. indica was shown to be effective in castor oil induced diarrhoea but not in isolated guinea pig ileum diarrhoea model. M. balsamina was of particular interest because it had most of the claimed properties and is the most potent of the nine plants studied. These results support some of the uses of these plants in folk medicine.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TITLE PAGE
i
DECLARATION
ii
CERTIFICATION
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
iv
DEDICATION
vi
ABSTRACT
xx
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1
THE ORIGIN OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
1
1.2
THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRADITIONAL
1
1.3
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
3
1.4
RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCH
4
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
6
2.1.1
History of Medicinal Plants
6
2.1.2
The Practice of Traditional Medicine
8
2.1.3
Western Medicine System
10
2.1.4
Development of Drugs from Plants
12
2.1.5
The Practice of Traditional Medicine in Nigeria
14
2.1.6
Plant Parts Used and Methods of Preparation
15
2.1.7
Advantages of Traditional Medicine over Orthodox Medicine
16
2.1.8
The Development of Phytotherapies (Phytomedicines)
17
2.2
PAIN
17
2.2.1
Nociception
18
2.2.2
Mechanisms of Pain
19
viii
2.2.3
Perception of Pain
20
2.2.4
Models of Nociception
20
2.2.5
Types of Pain
23
2.2.6
Management of Chronic Pain
25
2.2.7
Disease Conditions Related to Pain
28
2.3.
INFLAMMATION
33
2.3.1
Causes of Inflammation
33
2.3.2
Significance of Inflammation
33
2.4
MEDICINAL PLANTS INVESTIGATED
34
2.4.1
Sarcocephalus esculentus Afzelius (Rubiaceae)
34
2.4.2
Cassia goratensis Fresen, (Caesalpinioideae)
35
2.4.3
Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae)
35
2.4.4
Pseudocedrela kotschyi Harm (Meliacea)
35
2.4.5
Enantia chlorantha Oliv., (Annonaceae)
36
2.4.6
Nauclea latifolia Smith, (Rubiaceae)
37
2.4.7
Momordica balsamina Linn, (Cucurbitaceae)
37
2.4.8
Stachytarpheta indica Vahl, (Verbenaceae)
38
2.4.9
Prosopis Africana (Guillemin & Perrottet)Taubert, (Fabaceae)
38
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1.1
COLLECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PLANT
40
3.1.1
Preparation of Plant
41
3.1.2
Method of Extraction
41
3.1.3
Selection of Plants for Detailed Study
42
3.2
ANIMALS USED
43
3.3
DRUGS AND CHEMICALS
43
3.4
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF THE PLANTS STUDIED
43
3.4.1
General Test for Alkaloids
44
3.4.2
Test for Glycosides
44
ix
3.4.3
Test for Saponoins
44
3.4.4
Test for Tannins
45
3.4.5
Determination of Crude Protein Content
45
3.5
FRACTIONATION OF M. BALSAMINA EXTRACT
45
3.6
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES
46
3.6.1
Acute Soxicity studies
46
LD50 Determination
46
Histological Studies
46
Histological Examination
47
3.6.2
Heamatological and Biochemical Studies
48
3.7.
TEST FOR ANALGESIA IN MICE
51
3.7.1
Writhing Reflex Test
51
3.7.2
Hot Plate Test
51
3.7.3
Tail Flick Test
52
3.7.4
Formalin Test
52
3.8
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY TEST
53
3.9
ANTI-PYREXIA TEST
54
3.10
EFFECT OF THE EXTRACT OF M. BALSAMINA ON GASTRIC MUCOSA
54
3.10.1
Indomethacin-Induced Ulcer
55
3.11
INVESTIGATION FOR THE MECHANISM OF THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF M. balsamina
55
3.11.1
Cell Stability Test
55
3.11.2
Cell Migration Test
57
3.12
ANTI-CONVULSIVE STUDIES
59
3.12.1
Chemically Induced Convulsion
59
3.12.2
Electrically Induced Convulsion
59
3.13
EFFECTS OF EXTRACT ON URETHANE INDUCED SLEEP
60
3.14
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
60
3.15
EFFECTS ON CASTOR OIL-INDUCED DIARRHOEA IN RATS
61
3.16
ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECT OF M.balsamina
62
3.17
EFFECTS ON ISOLATED RABBIT JEJUNUM
63
x
3.18
DIRECT BLOOD PRESSURE
63
3.19
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
65
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
4.1
COLLECTION AND SELECTION OF PLANTS
66
4.2
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF THE PLANTS STUDIED
68
4.3
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES
70
4.3.1
LD50 and Percentage Yield
70
4.3.2
Histological Examination
72
4.3.3
Haematological Parameters
73
4.3.4
Biochemical Parameters
77
4.4
ANALGESIC ACTIVITY
79
4.4.1
Writhing Reflex
79
4.4.2
Hot Plate Test
82
4.4.3
Tail Flick Test
84
4.4.4
Formalin Test
87
4.5
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY
90
4.6
TEMPERATURE LOWERING EFFECT
95
4.7
ULCEROGENIC AND ANTI-ULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF M. balsamina
97
4.8
INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANISM OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF M. balsamina
100
4.9
ANTI-CONVULSIVE EFFECT
104
4.10
URETHANE INDUCED SLEEP
108
4.11
ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVIIES
110
4.12
ANTI-DIARRHOEAL EFFECT
113
4.12.1
Effects on Castor Oil-Induced Diarrhoea
113
4.12.2
Effects on Isolated Rabbit Jejunum
116
4.13
ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECT
120
4.14
EFFECT OF THE EXTRACT OF M. balsamina ON BLOOD PRESSURE
122
xi
4.14.1
Effect of Extract on Cat`s Blood Pressure
122
4.14.2
EFFECT ON RAT’S ATRIA
123
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION
5.1
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES
135
5.2
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES
135
5.2.1
LD50 and Acute Toxicity Assay
135
5.1.2
Histological Examination
137
5.1.3
Haematological Parameters
137
5.1.4
Biochemical Parameters
138
5.3
ANALGESIC ACTIVITY
139
5.3.1
Writhing Reflex
139
5.3.2
Hot Plate Test
140
5.3.3
Tail Flick Test
141
5.3.4
Formalin Test
141
5.4
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY
142
5.5
OTHER PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF M. balsamina
143
5.5.1
Temperature Lowering Effect
144
5.5.2
Ulcerrogenic and Anti-ulcerogenic Effect of M.balsamina
144
5.5.3
Mechanism of Anti-inflammatory Effect of M. balsamina
145
5.5.4
Anti-convulsive Effect
147
5.5.5
Urethane Induced Sleep
147
5.5.6
Anti-microbial effect of M. balsamina
148
5.5.7
Anti-diarrhoea Effect of M. balsamina
149
Effects on Castor Oil-induced Diarrhoea
149
In-vitro Anti-diarhoeal Effect of M. balsamina
150
5.5.8
Effects on Isolated Rabbit Jejunum
152
5.5.9
Blood Pressure Lowering Effects of M. balsamina
153
Effect M. balsamina on Cats Blood Pressure
153
xii
Effect of M. balsamina on Rat’s Atria
155
5.6
SUMMARY
155
5.7
CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
158
5.7.1
Highlights of the major findings of this research and contribution to knowledge
158
5.8
CONCLUSION
158
REFERENCES
160
APPENDICES

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 1.1 THE ORIGIN OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE It is interesting that even “primitive people” could discover relationships between drugs, food and diseases. The inborn craving for food and medicine has led to their discoveries. Man recognized their dependence on nature in both health and illness. They used plants, animal parts and minerals as sources of food and to control and treat different types of ailments. Led by instinct, taste, and experience, “primitive” people treated illness using plants, animal parts, and minerals that were not part of their usual diet. All cultures have a history of one folk medicine or the other. These often include the use of plants and in some cases animal parts. In ancient cultures, people methodically and systematically collected information on herbs and developed well-defined herbal pharmacopoeias. Much of the pharmacopoeia of scientific medicine was derived from the herbal lore of native peoples. About 70-80% of the populations of the developing countries still use traditional medicines to meet their health care needs (Farnsworth et al., 1985). Modern pharmacopoeias contain at least 25% of drugs derived from plants and many others, are synthetic analogues, built on prototype compounds isolated from plants (Farnsworth et al., 1985). 1.2 FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE The development of traditional medicine has been hampered in the past by the attitude of the public and government on its use. The bias arose from the belief that alternative medicine has a strong link with the practice of spiriticism, which
2
negates practice of orthodox medicine. Another reason for government`s attitude to traditional medicine is lack of scientific basis for the claimed actions of plants and traditional methods of healing. Despite the bias against traditional medicine, there has been in the last decades a dramatic increase in the use of herbs and herbal remedies worldwide (Brevoort, 1998; Blumenthal, 1999). Efforts have been made to eliminate this bias by restructuring the requirements for proof of efficacy and concentrating on safety, and by removing the need for extensive analyses of chemically complex natural product medicine (NIH, 1992; NFAM, 2004). The recognized growing dependence on the use of alternative medicine systems for achieving cost reduction and health care services goals has prompted governments worldwide to increase investment in complementary and alternative medicine (NIH, 1992; NFAM, 2004). In Nigeria, low income earners and the unemployed depend on herbal medicinal products for their medicinal needs. Most of these herbal products are thought to relieve pain and cure several diseases. Disease conditions are normally associated with pain, head ache and inflammation, and the relief of these symptoms is taken as a cure of the ailment by traditional doctors and patients. Craftsmen (mechanics, painters etc.) take some of these herbs after a day’s work in the belief that it will relieve their pain and enhance their performance the next day. Some of these herbal products are not, in some cases, effective. A number of death has been related to the toxic effects of some of these herbs (personal communications). The dependence on herbal medicines is due mainly to the fact that most people are poor and cannot afford orthodox medicines or due to their ready availability and belief that herbal medicines are more effective than
3
orthodox medicines. These herbs are taken in most cases without proper dosage instructions and are claimed to have many activities. Pain is a symptom of vitually all diseases, and it is a world-wide problem because it is associated with most ailments. This makes the aleviation of pain an important venture while the cause of pain is being treated. Pain associated with terminal diseases (like cancer), are of great concern. Since these diseases cannot be cured, drugs that relieve the patient of the symptoms (pain) of the disease are normally used to reduce the suffering of the patient. Potent pharmacological substances are discovered scientifically through pharmacological screening of herbal products. Examples are quinine, strychnine (convulsant), and curare (muscle relaxant), (Sandberg et al., 1971; Verpoorte and Bohlin, 1976). Such search is normaly preceeded by ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used in communities. Identification of such plants is crucial to their use in development and western medicine. Documentation of the habitat of such plants is also necessary because of the difference in the constituents of plants from different geographical locations. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This research seeks First, to ascertain the claims of traditional healers on the uses of the collected plants Second, to collect and identify plants used to treat pain in Jos North Local Government Area (LGA) of Plateau State, Nigeria.
4
Third, to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory properties of these
plants.
Fourth, to evaluate other pharmacological properties that may augument
the analgesic activity and
Fifth, to evaluate the analgesic properties of fraction(s) of the plant, if
found to have analgesic properties.
1.4 RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCH
The fact that these plants have been in use for a very long time may be a
proof that they have some sort of activity and are safe for consumption. Plants
without activity and those that are toxic are normally removed from the list of
plants used in folk medicine. Confirmation of the claimed activity is necessary to
ascertain the pharmacological properties of these herbs.
Pain is a universal problem and people go for pain relievers to suppress its
traumatic and emotional effects. People living with terminal diseases (like Cancer,
sickle cell anaemia, etc) are always in pain. A strong, safe and reliable analgesic
with minimal side effects is needed to help these individuals live quality lives.
Death has been reported after ingestion of some herbal medicines (personal
communication). It is therefore necessary for reseach to be carried out in this area
to acertain the safety of these herbs. Some herbs, may appear safe, but may have
silent negative effect(s) on the body system. For example, high dose of willow
bark decoction has eroding effect on the gastro-intestinal tract mucosa. This effect
may be fatal, if necessary precautions (ensuring proper dosage) are not taken. It is
5
hoped that after this work the general public will be better informed on the danger
and/or use of the selected herbal medicines. It is also hoped that the traditional
healers will stop prescribing herbs that may pose a danger to patient. They will
also be advised on a better and more effective way to prepare and use the selected
plants.
6

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