This work was to evaluate of air pollution on human health in industrial estate in Enugu state.
In chapter one, the study discussed the background the problem of the study, the scope, some research questions, significant and some definition of terms.
In chapter two, contains review of related literature, air pollution, types of air pollutants and effect of air pollution. Furthermore, chapter three contains research design, area of the population and sample size. Instrument for data collection validation of instrument reliability of instrument and method of data collection and method of data analysis. Chapter four contained the Result and analysis of data while the chapter five concluded the study.
1.1 Background To the study
As we proceed more into the industrial age of technology and urbanization, it is clearly understood that it has changed several aspects of human life. The populace benefits largely from the developments that emanate from these and many live in prosperity, but prosperity has a price. This price is paid by our environment that suffers daily from all kinds of pollutants, including destruction of the atmospheric environment. This increases the overall toxic burden of the environment (Njoku & Ibe, 2009). air pollution is defined by the European Union 1996 Council Directive on Integrated air pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC, 1996) in Fagbeja et al. (2008) as “the direct or indirect introduction as a result of human activity, of substances, vibrations, heat or noise into the air, water or land which may be harmful to human health or the quality of the environment, result in damage to material property, or impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment.”
air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere (Tawari & Abowei, 2012). It can be defined as the presence in the outdoor or indoor atmosphere of one or more gaseous or particulate contaminants in quantities, characteristics and of duration such as to be injurious to human, plant or animal life or to property, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life and property (Odigure, 1998).
air pollution is one of the problems associated with the growing population of various cities. This has increased tremendously with urbanization and associated industrial development and growth in mobility which have deteriorated air quality and intensified air pollution in densely populated areas. The severity of the air pollution problems in the cities reflects the level and speed of development (APMA, 2002; Molina et al., 2004; Grutter et al., 2014), and most of these pollutants are emitted from “fugitive” sources such as evaporation of solvents or leaks at industrial facilities, incinerators and flare stacks can also be source of atmospheric emissions (Fort Air Partnership (FAP), 2014). The main objective of the study is to present a general overview of the causes, effects and remediation of air pollution with a little focus on Nigeria.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
In Nigeria for instance, environmental issues did not gain official prominence until the 1988 Koko toxic waste dumping saga which also brought to the fore the exigent need to establish the Nigeria Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Federal Ministry of Environment and other relevant agencies, ostensibly to tackle environmentally related issues, in the country. These include issues such as air pollution, sanitation, depletion of ozone layer, desertification, flooding, erosion, poverty, bush burning, deforestation, soil conservation etc. All these mentioned above are a pointer to the fact that issues of environment and infact air pollution which forms the basis of this study has taken a centre stage in the nation‟s (Nigeria‟s) development process.
Environmentally minded scholars: Ocheri (2003:174), Gbehe (2004), and Aja (2005:114) have associated air pollution with human activities and albeit persistent human interaction with the environment. Research has also shown that as the population of a country grows/increases with attendant pressure on the environment especially in the wake of improved technologies, environmental abuse and air pollution is nevertheless heightened with corresponding effects on lives of people and other living organisms, (Ocheri, 2003: 175 and Hausers, 1971). It has been observed further that man through industrial, agricultural and the ever increasing urbanization process, security and terrorist activities tend to directly and/or indirectly pollute the environment. Jande (2005) and Aja (2005:114) in their separate observations, also in tandem with the foregoing agree that unrestricted use of pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and indiscriminate dumping of refuse, excreta and animal dung as well as spillages from refineries, large scale bush burning etc are perceived as some of the leading factors of air pollution in Nigeria.
The evaluation of air pollution on human health in industrial estate is about the diverse ways air pollution his affected the people living in that location in Edo State due to urbanization, construction of industries lack of health education to enable them know the way to keep their environment clean. However, suggestions on possible ways of scaling the problems to enable the inhabitants of the area live in a healthy atmosphere were highlighted.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objective of the study includes the following:
- To examine the effects of air pollution to man and his environment
- To identify the various sources of air pollution
- To suggest solutions to air pollution problem in the area of study
- To define the term air pollution
1.4 Research Questions
The following question is hereby put forth to guide this research work:
- What are the factors that encourage air pollution in Enugu North LGA?
- What are the effects of air pollution in Enugu North LGA?
- In what ways does air pollution poses hazards/dangers to inhabitants of Enugu North LGA?
- What are the possible ways of controlling or discouraging environmental air pollution in Enugu North LGA?
1.5 Significance of the Study
By realistically using the research’s findings or findings, all residential communities in the study region as well as communities across the nation will benefit from this study.
Additionally, residents of the area under study for their own health and socioeconomic safety, environmentalists who are experts in the field, academics who disseminate knowledge, non-governmental organisations that advocate for the masses in environmental issues, governmental organisations that create policies for the public, and the general public who typically live in one environment or the other whose needs can all benefit from the findings and recommendations of this work.
1.6 Scope of the study
The effect of air pollution on human health is a global problem; its alarming rate is high in developing countries than industrialized countries where adequate safety precautions are taken into consideration. For this reason, this research does not covered all but rather focus attention on Nigeria and particularly Industrial Area of Enugu North LGA. Beside several factors that caused physical accident at workplace, this research is mainly centred on air pollution for a healthy environment.
1.7 Operational Definition of terms
Industrial safety:- It is the management of safety activities within a certain industry for the purpose of reducing risks and injuries in a certain occupational function.
Industrial accident:- An industrial accident is a discrete occurrence of unplanned events in the course of industrial activity leading to physical or mental injury.
Workers‟ attitude:- It is mental and neutral state of readiness of workers, organized through working experience that exert influence upon the individual worker‟s response to all objects and situations with which he is related in working environment.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):– Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as “PPE”, is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and eye protection, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs) hard hats, respirators and full body suits.
Safety Management System (SMS):- A SMS provides a systematic way to identify hazards and control risks while maintaining assurance that these risk controls are effective.
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) also commonly referred to as Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is an area concerned with the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment.[email protected].[email protected].