EVALUATION OF POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH IN INDUSTRIAL ESTATE
In this research work, the researcher intended to have a general discussion with pollution as my background. But lack of space may not allow me for detailed discussion and analysis. However, all essential part of effect of pollution on human health are discussed.
In chapter one, the study discussed the background the problem of the study, the scope, some research questions, significant and some definition of terms.
In chapter two, contains review of related literature, pollution, types of pollution, pollutants and effect of pollution. Furthermore, chapter three contains research design, area of the population and sample size. Instrument for data collection validation of instrument reliability of instrument and method of data collection and method of data analysis. Chapter four contained the Result and analysis of data while the chapter five concluded the study.
- Background to the study
The idea of industrial safety is a way to safeguard and preserve the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of industry personnel. In order to promote the health, safety, and welfare of the employees and their families, it is primarily concerned with the study of situations or variables impacting the health and well-being of workers not only at work but also at home.
Industrial safety was defined within the context of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) by the joint International Labour Organisation (ILO) and World Health Organisation (WHO) committee, which was established in 1950 and revised in 1995, as the “promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations.” The International Labour Organisation (ILO) reported at the 17th World Congress on Safety and Health at Work (2013) that there are 337 million workplace accidents each year and that 2.2 million people die from work-related illnesses and accidents. They added that this number may be significantly underestimated because many countries lack adequate reporting and coverage systems, particularly in developing nations in Africa and Asia where the number of work-related accidents, illnesses, and deaths appears to be rising as a result.
All living things engage in the fundamental process of pollution production. A cycle of human actions and processes results in pollution of various magnitude. Pollution is created when materials and chemicals are produced, transformed, and consumed inside a city or municipality. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) pollution is the term used to describe the pollution produced in this situation. Industrial pollution control is a serious problem that Nigerian enterprises must address; as a result, occupational health and safety practises in Nigeria are still in their infancy in comparison to those found in more advanced civilizations. In Nigeria, a lot of companies regularly release their contaminated water into surface waters (oceans, seas, and streams) without using any kind of treatment or remediation methods.
According to the World Health Organisation, pollution is defined as something that has no present or perceived market worth that the owner no longer wants at a specific moment and location. The Lagos State Environmental Sanitation Edict of 1985 is one of the few laws in Nigeria that makes an attempt to describe pollution. In section 322, pollution is defined as follows:
Pollution of all kinds (a) and any consistency that is made up of waste materials, an effluent, or another excess substance produced as a result of the use of any procedure (b).
The IFC stated that any solid, liquid, or contained gaseous materials that are being discarded by disposal, recycling, burning, or incineration can be classified as environmental and industrial context pollution. These materials may be leftovers from a manufacturing process or commercial products that have reached the end of their useful lives and must be disposed of.
Liquid pollution, such as wastewater or effluents, gaseous emissions, and solid pollution are all products of industrial activity. While liquid pollution and effluents offer the most devastating and immediate threat to worker health, gaseous emissions nevertheless hold a position of great concern. Industrial pollutions are inherently dangerous and, as their name suggests, if improperly handled, offer a threat or potential harm to both human health and the environment.
Soil, water, and air are all contaminated by hazardous contamination. A tenuous relationship that is harmful to sustained growth and development is surely created by the pollution of these three essential elements linked to human existence. Exposure to infectious agents and biological pollutants, stress due to odour, noise, vermin, and visual amenity, risk of fires, explosions, and subsidence, spills, accidents, and transport emission are some of the health effects.
Without a doubt, depending on the precise duties of their jobs, workers are exposed to a wide range of risks of varied seriousness. An industrial worker in an asbestos factory may be exposed to air pollutants like toluene and benzene, while a miner might risk his life by working in hot conditions with unstable illumination, deoxygenated air, and other hazards. In addition to the two million persons who report suffering from illnesses they think were brought on by their jobs, an estimated 2 million working hours are missed each year due to work-related disease.
Because of the harmful chemicals that are released, industrial pollution has a direct impact on health. Beyond a certain point, these substances have harmful impacts on human health. The heart, blood, kidneys, reproductive organs, lungs, and liver are just a few of the organs that be affected. As a result, this research investigates how pollution affects human health in a few specific Abuja industries..
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Due to ignorance and lack of education, the residential population had been accused of willful disregard for environmental conservation practises and pollution. According to Haruna and Salihu (2007), certain residential activities have the potential to negatively impact the environment, including the forest and animals, if they are not carried out appropriately. As a result, it is critical to raise environmental awareness and educational standards.
Lack of environmental education brought on by subpar service delivery of environmental extension services may also be a contributing factor in household ignorance of conservation awareness practises. According to their theoretical and empirical stances, it is important to determine the level of environmental awareness practise among the local population in the study area in order to provide them with the environmental conservation awareness practise required to prevent environmental pollution and to ensure human and environmental security. To accomplish this efficiently, it is necessary to recognise the issues extension agents deal with. This will make clear what practises need to be improved in environmental education.
Due to increased population, heavy vehicular traffic, and vehicles on highways that spew carbon monoxide straight into the atmosphere due to human activity, the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria has extreme air pollution.
Residents of the Federal Capital Territory’s ignorance of air pollution is not a defence for its consequences. Asthma attacks and acute bronchitis can be brought on by air pollution, which can also make people more susceptible to respiratory infections (USEPA, 2003, June, 2003, and 2009).
Due to the rapidly expanding population in the Federal Capital Territory, the outcry over power outages and the use of power plants, emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, bush burning, use of fuel wood by households, disposal of waste lubricants by mechanics, open mine queries, methane gas from solid waste sites, etc., it is urgent to assess the air quality in the Federal Capital Territory.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The purpose of this study is to identify the Effects of pollution on human health among residents in Federal Capital Territory Abuja. Specifically, the study is aimed at the following:
- To highlight the factors that causes pollution in Federal Capital Territory Abuja.
- To take note of the effects of pollution on plants and animals (man to be precise) in Federal Capital Territory Abuja.
- To know the dangers/damages pollution has on residents of Federal Capital Territory Abuja.
- To make suggestions that will help check or control activities of the residents with respect to protecting the environment.
1.4 Research Questions
The following question is hereby put forth to guide this research work:
- What are the factors that encourage environmental pollution in Federal Capital Territory Abuja?
- What are the effects of environmental pollution in Federal Capital Territory Abuja?
- In what ways does Environmental Pollution poses hazards/dangers to inhabitants of Federal Capital Territory Abuja?
- What are the possible ways of controlling or discouraging environmental pollution in Federal Capital Territory Abuja?
1.5 Significance of the Study
By realistically using the research’s findings or findings, all residential communities in the study region as well as communities across the nation will benefit from this study.
Additionally, residents of the area under study for their own health and socioeconomic safety, environmentalists who are experts in the field, academics who disseminate knowledge, non-governmental organisations that advocate for the masses in environmental issues, governmental organisations that create policies for the public, and the general public who typically live in one environment or the other whose needs can all benefit from the findings and recommendations of this work.
1.6 Scope of the study
The effect of pollution on human health is a global problem; its alarming rate is high in developing countries than industrialized countries where adequate safety precautions are taken into consideration. For this reason, this research does not covered all but rather focus attention on Nigeria and particularly Industrial Area of Abuja, FCT. Beside several factors that caused physical accident at workplace, this research is mainly centred on pollution for a healthy environment.
1.7 Operational Definition of terms
Industrial safety:- It is the management of safety activities within a certain industry for the purpose of reducing risks and injuries in a certain occupational function.
Industrial accident:- An industrial accident is a discrete occurrence of unplanned events in the course of industrial activity leading to physical or mental injury.
Workers‟ attitude:- It is mental and neutral state of readiness of workers, organized through working experience that exert influence upon the individual worker‟s response to all objects and situations with which he is related in working environment.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):– Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as “PPE”, is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and eye protection, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs) hard hats, respirators and full body suits.
Safety Management System (SMS):- A SMS provides a systematic way to identify hazards and control risks while maintaining assurance that these risk controls are effective.
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) also commonly referred to as Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is an area concerned with the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment.[email protected].[email protected].