The quest for economy in asphalt production using locally available materials necessitated this research which is aimed at evaluating the suitability of Saw Dust Ash (SDA) as mineral filler in asphalt mixture.Chemical analysis, sieve analysis, specific gravity and plasticity index tests were performed on SDA. Asphalt briquettes prepared using Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) without saw dust as filler serve as the control. SDA was used to replace the Portland cement at 0% to 100% at an interval of 10% by weight. Marshall Test was conducted on all briquettes produced with SDA and OPC. Results of tests show that increase in SDA resulted in reduction in the value of bulk density. It was also observed that the total voids in the mix increased with SDA content, while the values of stability and flow decreased with SDA. The optimum bitumen content of 6.0% was used to prepare specimens. The flow value of asphalt decreased from 2.0mm when only the cement was used as filler to 1.0mm when the cement was completely replaced with 100% SDA. Voids in mineral aggregate increased from 18.28% when 100 % cement was used as filler to 26.32% when cement was completely replaced with SDA. Based on results of tests, the use of cement partially replaced with 10% SDA at 6% bitumen content is recommended for use in asphalt production.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i Declaration ii Certification iii Dedication iv Acknowledgements v Abstract vii Table of Contents viii List of Tables xi List of Figures xii List of Equations xiii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Preamble 1 1.2 Statementof the Research Problem 3 1.3 Justification of the Study + 3 1.4 Aim and Objectives 4 1.4.1 Aim 4 1.4.2 Objectives 4 1.5 Scope of Study 4 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Asphalt Concrete 5
2.2 Composition of Asphalt 5
2.2.1 Bitumen 6 2.2.2 Aggregates 8 220.127.116.11 Coarse aggregates 9 18.104.22.168 Fine Aggregates 11 22.214.171.124 Filler 15 126.96.36.199.1 Choice of Filler 16 188.8.131.52.2 Types of Filler 17
184.108.40.206.3 Kiln Dust 18 CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Description of Materials 21 3.1.1 Bitumen 21 3.1.2 Coarse Aggregates 24 220.127.116.11 Laboratory Test on Coarse Aggregates 24 3.1.3 Fine Aggregate 29 18.104.22.168 Laboratory test on fine aggregate 29 3.1.4 Ordinary Portland Cement- OPC (Control) 30 22.214.171.124 Laboratory test on Portland Cement 30 3.1.5 Saw Dust Ash (SDA)- Investigation 31 126.96.36.199 Laboratory test on Saw Dust Ash (SDA) 32 3.2 Aggregate Gradation (Blending Method) 35 3.2.1 Asphalt concrete mix design 35 3.2.2 The Marshall method 36
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND D+ISCUSSION 4.1 Results 38 4.2 Marshall Stability Test Results 45 4.3 Effect of Saw Dust Ash on Flow 45 4.4 Effect of Saw Dust Ash on Bulk Density 46 4.5 Effect of Saw Dust Ash on Voids in Mineral Aggregate 47 4.6 Effect of Saw Dust Ash on Stability 48 4.7 Effect of Saw Dust Ash on Voids in Total Mix 49 4.8 Effect of Saw Dust Ash on Voids Filled with Bitumen 50 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Conclusion 52 5.2 Recommendations 53 REFERENCES 55 APPENDICES 58
INTRODUCTION 1.1 Preamble Continuous generation of wastes arising from industrial by-products and agricultural residue, create acute environmental problems both in terms of their treatment and disposal. The construction industry has been identified as one of the areas where the waste can be absorbed, with the majority of such materials used as filler in concrete (Antihos et al., 2005). If these fillers have pozzolanic properties, they impart technical advantages to the resulting concrete and also enable larger quantities of cement replacement to be achieved (Hossain, 2003). Approximate utilization of these materials brings ecological and economic benefits. Waste material recycling into useful products has been the current method of solving waste problems (Ahmed, 2006). Material recycling has been a common practice for most of human history with record as far back as Plato in 400 BC (Grosse, 2010). Recycling is a process to change waste materials into new products to prevent hazards associated with waste, reduces the consumption of fresh raw materials, and it also reduces greenhouse gas emissions arising from the conventional method of disposing such wastes (Grosse, 2010).
Many highway agencies are conducting wide variety of studies and research work on the feasibility, environmental suitability, and performance of using recycled products in highway construction (Ahmed, 2006). Saw dust is a waste material from the timber industry. It is produced as timber is sawn into planks at saw mills located in virtually all major towns in the country. This process is a daily activity causing heaps of saw dust to
be generated after each day. The need to convert this waste product into a useful by-product is the main focus of this study. Some industrial wastes have been studied for use as supplementary cementing materials such as flyash (Siddique, 2004; Wang and Baxter; 2007), silica fume (Lee, et. al. 2005; Turker et al. 1977, pulverized fuel ash (Balendran and Martin Buades; 2000), volcanic ash (Hossain, 2005), rice husk ash (Waswa-Sabuni, et. al. 2002) and corn cob ash (CCA) (Adesanya and Raheem, 2009a; 2009b; 2010; Raheem, et. al. 2010, Raheem and Adesanya, 2011).
Elinwa and Ejeh (2004) considered the effect of waste incineration fly ash (SWIFA) in cementing pastes and mortar. Cheah and Ramli (2011) investigated the implementation of wood waste ash as a partial replacement for cement in the production of structural grade concrete and mortar. Elinwa, et al. (2008) assessed the properties of fresh self-compacting concrete containing sawdust ash. Elinwa and Mahmood (2002) considered ash from timber waste as cement replacement material. One of the roles of a conventional filler material in a bituminous mix is to increase the viscosity of the binder, thereby lessening the risk of stripping. It is now well established that, if a small amount of hydrated lime or cement (say, 1 to 2 percent by mass of the aggregate in the mix) is included as a replacement for some of the conventional filler material, a chemical action will take place between either additive and the bitumen that results in the formation of compounds that are adsorbed on negatively charged aggregate surfaces, and this has the effect of improving adhesion and rendering the bitumen less vulnerable to stripping (Brennan and O‟Flaherty, 2002). Addition of filler to asphalt is to make it harder and stiffer, which primarily depends on the amount of filler added. Thus, the use of saw dust
as filler in asphalt mixture will go a long way to remedy the situation of boycotting the use of mineral filler in asphalt mixture by some construction companies as well as reducing its environmental littering and pollution impact. 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem Ordinary Portland cement and limestone dust are common materials used as mineral filler in asphalt production. However, increase in the cost of these materials in recent times has led to some construction companies boycotting their use as mineral filler. The importance of filler in asphalt cannot be ignored in that the general effect of adding it to asphalt mixture is to make it harder and stiffer and helps to produce a dense graded strong material. A situation where it is not used will affect the performance of the asphalt, such as toughness and the danger of stripping of binders. Recent researches have focused on the use of locally available waste materials, rich in calcium oxide (CaO) as possible substitute for cement or limestone dust as mineral filler in asphalt mixture. This research is aimed at evaluating the suitability of saw dust ash as mineral filler in asphalt production. 1.3 Justification of the Study Preparing asphalt without adding mineral filler or other additives affects the performance characteristics of the asphalt (Atkins, 1977). It is worthwhile to know that the general effect of adding filler to asphalt is to make it harder and stiffer and thus preventing the stripping of bitumen.
The use of saw dust ash as substitute for cement or limestone dust will ensure economy in the production of asphalt, and the use of mineral filler that is omitted by some construction companies. Environmental pollution associated with saw dust will also be overcome. 1.4 Aim and Objectives 1.4.1 Aim The aim of this research work is to evaluate the suitability of saw dust ash, as partial replacement for cement, as mineral filler in asphalt production. The aim of the study will be achieved through the following objectives. 1.4.2 Objectives
i. To determine the chemical constituents of the material (saw dust ash).
ii. To determine its suitability as mineral filler in asphalt mixture as stipulated in AASHTO M17 and the Nigerian General Specification for Roads and Bridges (1997), volume II-Federal Ministry of Works.
iii. To subject its briquette to Marshall Test and compare result of tests with standards.
1.5 Scope of Study There are different kinds of industrial wastes such as fly ash, silica fume, pulverized fuel ash, corn cob ash and volcanic ash. This research work focuses only on the use of saw dust ash as partial replacement for cement in asphalt production.
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