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Examination of Education and Training of Library and Information Science Students in Universities in Kwara State. A Case Study of Kwara State University, Al Hikma University and University of Ilorin.



This study was on examination of education and training of library and information science students in universities in Kwara state. A case study of Kwara state university, Al hikma university and University of ilorin. Three objectives were raised which included:  To analyze the content and structure of the LIS curricula offered by universities in Kwara State, to evaluate the adequacy of technology-related courses in preparing students for digital information management and to identify deficiencies that may hinder effective teaching and learning in LIS programs. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from universities in Kwara State. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).


Chapter one


Background of the study

Library and Information Science (LIS) is a multidisciplinary field that encompasses the study of how information is produced, disseminated, organized, and accessed. The education and training of LIS students are crucial for preparing professionals who can manage and facilitate access to information in a variety of settings, including libraries, archives, and information centers. As the digital age transforms the landscape of information management, the education and training of LIS students must evolve to meet new challenges and opportunities.

The education of LIS professionals has a long history, dating back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries when formal training programs began to emerge. In the United States, Melvil Dewey established the first library school at Columbia University in 1887, which set a precedent for LIS education worldwide (Rubin, 2010). Over the decades, LIS programs have expanded their curricula to include not only traditional library skills but also information science, technology, and management.

The rapid advancement of technology has significantly impacted LIS education. The proliferation of digital information, the rise of big data, and the increasing importance of information literacy require LIS curricula to adapt continuously. According to Juznic and Pymm (2016), modern LIS programs must incorporate subjects such as data management, digital curation, and information architecture to remain relevant. Additionally, the integration of technology into LIS education is essential for preparing students to work in digital environments (Smith, 2019).

LIS education varies globally, reflecting differences in educational systems, cultural contexts, and professional requirements. In developing countries, LIS education faces unique challenges such as limited resources, inadequate infrastructure, and a shortage of qualified faculty (Ocholla, 2009). Efforts to standardize LIS education, such as the guidelines provided by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), aim to ensure a consistent level of professional competence across different regions (IFLA, 2012).

Professional competencies play a critical role in shaping LIS education. Accrediting bodies such as the American Library Association (ALA) and the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) set standards for LIS programs to ensure that graduates possess the necessary skills and knowledge. According to the ALA (2020), core competencies for LIS professionals include knowledge of information resources, information organization, management, and technology. These competencies guide curriculum development and help ensure that LIS programs produce graduates who are well-equipped to meet the demands of the profession.

Looking forward, the education and training of LIS students must continue to evolve to address emerging trends and challenges. As the information landscape becomes increasingly complex, LIS programs must emphasize interdisciplinary approaches, critical thinking, and lifelong learning. Collaboration with other disciplines, such as computer science, education, and business, can enrich LIS curricula and better prepare students for diverse career paths (Kennan et al., 2011). Additionally, ongoing professional development and continuing education opportunities are essential for LIS professionals to stay current in a rapidly changing field.

The education and training of LIS students are foundational to the development of skilled information professionals who can navigate the complexities of the modern information environment. By adapting to technological advancements, global perspectives, and professional standards, LIS programs can ensure that graduates are prepared to meet the challenges and seize the opportunities of the digital age.


Statement of the problem

In the rapidly evolving landscape of information technology and digital communication, the education and training of Library and Information Science (LIS) students have become increasingly critical. This transformation demands that LIS programs continuously adapt their curricula to equip students with the skills and knowledge necessary to manage modern information systems effectively. However, despite these global trends, there are concerns regarding the adequacy and relevance of LIS education in many regions, including Kwara State, Nigeria.

Kwara State, with its growing educational sector, hosts several universities offering LIS programs. These programs are crucial in preparing students to meet the needs of the information society, particularly in a developing country context. Nevertheless, there are indications that the current LIS curricula in these universities may not be adequately aligned with the demands of the contemporary information environment. Issues such as outdated course content, insufficient integration of technology, lack of practical training opportunities, and inadequate infrastructure have been highlighted in various studies and reports.

Additionally, there is a noticeable gap between the competencies that LIS graduates possess and the expectations of employers in the information sector. Employers often report that graduates lack critical skills in areas such as digital information management, data analytics, and information literacy instruction. This disconnect not only hampers the employability of graduates but also affects the quality of information services provided to the community.

Therefore, the problem at hand is twofold: Firstly, there is a need to evaluate whether the current LIS curricula in Kwara State universities are sufficiently comprehensive and up-to-date to meet the modern demands of the profession. Secondly, there is a need to assess the effectiveness of these programs in equipping students with the practical skills and competencies required by the job market. Addressing these issues is essential for enhancing the quality of LIS education and ensuring that graduates are well-prepared to contribute meaningfully to the information sector in Kwara State and beyond.

The proposed study seeks to examine these critical issues by investigating the current state of LIS education and training in universities in Kwara State. It aims to identify gaps and challenges in the curricula, assess the adequacy of resources and facilities, and evaluate the alignment of educational outcomes with industry requirements. The findings of this study will provide valuable insights and recommendations for improving LIS programs, ultimately enhancing the professional readiness of graduates and the overall effectiveness of information services in the region.


Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To analyze the content and structure of the LIS curricula offered by universities in Kwara State
  2. To evaluate the adequacy of technology-related courses in preparing students for digital information management.
  3. To identify deficiencies that may hinder effective teaching and learning in LIS programs.


Research Hypotheses

H1: there is no content and structure of the LIS curricula offered by universities in Kwara State

H2: there is no adequacy of technology-related courses in preparing students for digital information management

Significance of the study

The significance of this study lies in its potential to impact various stakeholders in the field of Library and Information Science (LIS) in Kwara State and beyond. The findings and recommendations derived from this research will have several important implications:

The study will provide a comprehensive evaluation of the current LIS curricula in universities in Kwara State, identifying areas for improvement. This will help academic institutions update and refine their programs to better align with contemporary professional standards and industry requirements.

By highlighting the integration of technology and the inclusion of modern information management practices, the study will encourage universities to adopt innovative teaching methods and incorporate relevant technological tools into their curricula.

The study will identify gaps between the skills and competencies acquired by LIS students and the expectations of employers. This will enable universities to adjust their programs to better prepare graduates for the job market. Enhanced practical training opportunities and a more relevant curriculum will ensure that students develop the necessary skills and hands-on experience required for successful careers in the information sector.

The findings of this study will provide valuable insights for policymakers and educational authorities in Kwara State. This information can guide decisions related to resource allocation, curriculum development, and the implementation of policies aimed at improving LIS education. Recommendations for improving resources and infrastructure will help institutions prioritize investments in areas that directly impact the quality of LIS education.

Scope of the study

The scope of the study covers examination of education and training of library and information science students in universities in Kwara state.  the study will be limited to Kwara state university, Al hikma university and University of ilorin.

Limitation of the study

While this study aims to provide a comprehensive examination of the education and training of Library and Information Science (LIS) students in universities in Kwara State, there are several limitations that may impact the scope and generalizability of the findings:

  1. Data Collection Constraints:

Access to comprehensive and up-to-date data from universities may be challenging. Some institutions may have incomplete records or may be unwilling to share detailed information about their curricula, resources, and training programs.

  1. Time Constraints:

The study’s timeframe may limit the ability to conduct longitudinal analysis or to observe long-term trends and impacts of recent changes in LIS education.

  1. Resource Limitations:

Limited financial and human resources for the study may restrict the depth and breadth of the research. For example, conducting extensive fieldwork, surveys, and interviews may be constrained by budget and time.

Definition of terms

Library and Information Science (LIS):

A multidisciplinary field that focuses on the management, collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information in various formats. It includes the study of libraries, information centers, archives, and digital information systems.


The set of courses, content, and learning experiences provided by an educational institution. In the context of LIS, the curriculum includes subjects such as cataloging, information retrieval, digital libraries, and information technology.

Digital Information Management:

The practice of using digital tools and technologies to manage information resources. This includes the creation, storage, organization, retrieval, and dissemination of digital information.

 Information Literacy:

The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information. It is a critical skill for LIS professionals in helping users navigate and utilize information resources.


A period of practical training and work experience provided to students as part of their educational program. Internships in LIS typically involve placements in libraries, archives, or other information centers where students can apply their theoretical knowledge in real-world settings.


The skills, knowledge, and abilities that LIS professionals are expected to possess to perform their duties effectively. Core competencies for LIS include information organization, management, information technology, and user services.

Challenges to IL programmes in Nigeria.

Information literacy studies in Nigeria have revealed that there is a high level of computer illiteracy among Nigerian librarians thereby leading to shortage of personnel for Information Technology to support information literacy training (Idiodi, 2005; Alakpodia, 2010; Baro & Keboh, 2012).For example, Baro (2011) conducted a study on information literacy education in library schools in Africa to ascertain whether librarianship is taking the leading role in the development of information literacy in the universities. The study revealed that only few library schools have successfully integrated an information literacy course as a stand-alone course in their curriculum. Problems such as lack of personnel and facilities were mentioned in that study as obstacles to the integration of ILcourse in the curriculum. According to Iheaturu, (2002; p.51) “Nigerian academic libraries that provide programmes for user education are faced with lack of articulated philosophy and methodology needed to pursue the programme.” Such impediments are made manifest in the lack of a coherent curriculum on user education in Nigerian tertiary institutions, limited delivery of the programmes, non-participation of instructors (librarians) in the planning and the delivery as well as examination of the students. Baro, Seimode and Godfrey (2013) in their study identified factors militating against advocating and providing IL training in university libraries in Nigeria. These factors include lack of interest on the part of students, teachers, and management; inadequate human resources to handle IL training; lack of facilities; low acceptance of online IL delivery approach; and absence of an ILpolicy. Idiodi, (2005) and Baro and Keboh, (2012) stated that the provision of quality information literacy programmes have continued to elude Nigerian universities, as a result of limited space, inadequate support from parent institutions, especially from institutional management, inadequate staffing and other human resources, lack of suitable facilities, minimal interest from students themselves, disruptions in the academic calendar and the absence of a clear information literacy policy at every level. Similarly, the study by Anyaoku et al. (2015) reported that the major challenges that face information literacy programmes in Nigeria are lack of information literacy policy/standard, lack of university commitment to the project and lack of computers and other teaching resources Challenges faced in the provision of IL programmes in Nigeria are similar to other African countries. In South Africa, for example, Lwehabura and Stilwell (2008) reported lack of an explicit IL policy to provide guidance and directives on how information literacy activities should be conducted. Jiyane and Onyancha (2010) also identified challenges related to the delivery of ILin South Africa. They identified lack of basic information handling skills, including basic computer skills by students who attend university for the first time. Another challenge is the lack of appropriate facilities and resources such as computers and skilled instructors.


  • Ogunsola, L. A. (2016). Standardization and accreditation of library and information science programmes in Nigeria: Prospects and challenges. Library Philosophy and Practice, 2016.
  • Olumuyiwa, O. M., & Abioye, A. (2020). Interdisciplinary collaboration and library and information science education in Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice, 2020, 1-11.
  • Onyancha, O. B., & Ocholla, D. N. (2018). Integration of emerging technologies in LIS education and training: The case of Kenya. Education for Information, 34(3), 187-203.
  • Oyewusi, F. K., & Oyeboade, O. O. (2017). Library and information science education in Nigeria: Issues and challenges. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 1683. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/1683/
  •  Yusuf, M. O., & Hameed, A. (2021). Professional development of library and information science staff in Nigerian universities. Library Philosophy and Practice, 2021, 1-13.


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