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Examining the Unique Risks Associated With Operating in a Global Market and Develop Strategies for Risk Mitigation (a Case Study of Multinational Corporation Within Nigeria)


This study was on examining the unique risks associated with operating in a global market and develop strategies for risk mitigation (a case study of multinational corporation within Nigeria). Three objectives were raised which included: To investigate the political landscape in Nigeria and its impact on MNCs, to assess economic fluctuations and currency risks within the Nigerian context and to investigate the cultural nuances and social expectations relevant to MNCs operating in Nigeria. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were multinational corporation in Lagos state. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).


 Chapter one


Background of the study

Operating in a global market presents numerous opportunities for multinational corporations (MNCs), but it also exposes them to unique risks. This case study focuses on a multinational corporation within Nigeria to explore the distinct challenges associated with global operations and proposes strategies for effective risk mitigation.

Global markets often involve navigating diverse political landscapes and regulatory frameworks. In Nigeria, MNCs may encounter political instability, changes in government policies, and regulatory uncertainties. Political events, such as elections or geopolitical tensions, can impact the business environment. (Hitt, Ireland, & Hoskisson, 2020; Ogunleye, 2018)

Economic fluctuations, currency exchange rate volatility, and inflation pose significant challenges in global markets. The Nigerian economy, like many others, can experience currency devaluation, affecting the MNC’s profitability and financial stability (Czinkota, Ronkainen, & Moffett, 2009; Onugu, 2015)

Adapting to diverse cultural norms and societal expectations is crucial for success in global markets. MNCs operating in Nigeria must be attuned to cultural nuances, social expectations, and community relations to avoid reputational damage and ensure positive stakeholder relationships. (Hofstede, 2001; Okpara & Wynn, 2007)

Establishing strong government relations, staying informed about political developments, and diversifying investments across regions can help mitigate political risks. Developing contingency plans and maintaining flexibility in operations are essential strategies. (Wells, Shiu, & Miao, 2008; Sun, Mellahi, & Thun, 2010). To address economic risks, MNCs should employ effective financial risk management strategies, such as hedging against currency fluctuations, diversifying investments, and closely monitoring economic indicators. Regular financial assessments and scenario planning can aid in early detection and response. (Shapiro, 2014; Shapiro & Balbirer, 2014) MNCs should invest in cultural training for employees, foster diversity within the organization, and engage in corporate social responsibility initiatives tailored to the local context. Building strong relationships with local communities and stakeholders can enhance the company’s social license to operate.

Operating in a global market, particularly within Nigeria, requires a nuanced understanding of the unique risks associated with diverse environments. By implementing effective risk mitigation strategies in political, economic, and cultural dimensions, multinational corporations can enhance their resilience and sustainable growth in the global marketplace.

Statement of the problem

Multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the global market, specifically within the Nigerian context, face a myriad of unique and complex risks that have the potential to significantly impact their operations and overall business performance. These risks encompass political and regulatory uncertainties, economic fluctuations, and challenges related to cultural and social dynamics. Understanding and effectively addressing these risks is imperative for the sustained success and resilience of MNCs in a globalized business environment.

The political landscape in Nigeria is characterized by periodic elections, policy changes, and geopolitical tensions. MNCs encounter challenges in navigating this dynamic environment, where sudden shifts in government policies or political instability can disrupt operations and threaten long-term investments.

The Nigerian economy, like many others, is susceptible to economic fluctuations, inflation, and currency devaluation. MNCs face the challenge of managing financial risks associated with these factors, which can impact profitability, financial stability, and investment decisions.

Operating in a culturally diverse country like Nigeria requires MNCs to adapt to local customs, societal expectations, and community relations. Failure to understand and integrate with the local culture may lead to reputational damage, strained stakeholder relationships, and difficulties in building trust with the local communities.

Objective of the study

  1. To investigate the political landscape in Nigeria and its impact on MNCs.
  2. To assess economic fluctuations and currency risks within the Nigerian context.
  3. To investigate the cultural nuances and social expectations relevant to MNCs operating in Nigeria.

Research Hypotheses

H1: there is no political landscape in Nigeria and its impact on MNCs.

H2: there is no cultural nuances and social expectations relevant to MNCs operating in Nigeria

Significance of the study

This study holds significant importance due to its focus on examining the unique risks associated with operating in the global market, with a specific case study in Nigeria. The following points highlight the significance of the study:

This study contributes to the existing body of academic knowledge by providing in-depth insights into the challenges faced by multinational corporations (MNCs) in global markets, particularly within the Nigerian context. It enriches the academic literature on international business, risk management, and global strategy.

Findings from the study will be instrumental in informing business strategies for MNCs operating in Nigeria and similar global markets. Business leaders and decision-makers can use the research outcomes to develop effective risk mitigation strategies tailored to specific political, economic, and cultural contexts.

Policymakers and regulatory bodies can benefit from the study’s insights to formulate policies that create a conducive environment for MNCs to operate successfully. Understanding the challenges faced by businesses in the global market can guide the development of regulatory frameworks that promote economic stability and foreign investment.

International business practitioners, including managers and executives of MNCs, can use the study’s recommendations to enhance their understanding of the risks involved in global operations. The research findings can guide decision-making processes, leading to more informed and strategic approaches to risk management.

The study emphasizes the importance of cultural sensitivity and social responsibility in global business operations. By highlighting successful practices and strategies, it encourages MNCs to adopt sustainable corporate practices that not only contribute to their long-term success but also benefit local communities and stakeholders.

Scope of the study

The scope of the study covers examining the unique risks associated with operating in a global market and develop strategies for risk mitigation. The study will be limited to multinational corporation in Lagos state

Limitation of the study

  1. Temporal Constraints:

The study’s findings are based on a specific timeframe, and the rapidly changing global business environment may result in changes to political, economic, and cultural factors. The temporal constraints of the study may limit its relevance to future circumstances.

  1. Data Availability and Reliability:

The availability and reliability of data, especially in regions with diverse business environments and potential data gaps, may impact the depth and accuracy of the study’s analysis. The reliance on existing data sources could introduce biases or limitations in the comprehensiveness of the information.

  1. Case Study Approach:

While the case study approach provides a detailed understanding of the specific MNC operating in Nigeria, it may not capture the full spectrum of challenges faced by all MNCs in the country. Different industries, sectors, and organizational sizes may experience varying risk profiles that are not fully represented in the selected case study.

  1. Language and Communication Barriers:

The study relies on available literature, interviews, and documented information, which may be subject to language and communication barriers. The interpretation of cultural and social dynamics could be influenced by these barriers, limiting the depth of the analysis.

Definition of terms

  1. Global Market:

A global market refers to the interconnected network of economic activities, trade, and commerce that transcends national boundaries. It involves the exchange of goods, services, and capital on an international scale.

  1. Risks:

Risks are uncertainties or potential events that may have adverse effects on the achievement of organizational objectives. In the context of a global market, risks can manifest in various forms, including economic, political, social, technological, and environmental factors.

  1. Unique Risks:

Unique risks in the global market are challenges and uncertainties that are specific to cross-border operations and are not typically encountered in a domestic business environment. These may include currency fluctuations, geopolitical instability, cultural differences, and varying regulatory frameworks.

  1. Risk Mitigation:

Risk mitigation involves the development and implementation of strategies to reduce the impact or likelihood of adverse events. In the context of operating in a global market, mitigation strategies aim to address and manage the unique risks associated with international business activities.

  1. Risk Assessment:

Risk assessment is the process of evaluating potential risks by analyzing their likelihood and potential impact on business operations. This involves identifying, prioritizing, and understanding the various risks associated with global market activities.


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