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ABSTRACT

Pork oil was extracted through dry rendering from pork obtained from a local slaughter house in
Samaru, Zaria. The physicochemical properties (refractive index, saponification value, percent
free fatty acid content, iodine value, acid value, peroxide value, melting point, moisture content,
hydroxyl value, unsaponifiable matter and ash content) were assessed using standard procedures.
The result obtained compare favourably with recommended physicochemical properties of edible
oils, the fatty acid composition of the oil determine by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry
(GC-MS) shows the major constituent to be oleic acid (46.49%), palmitic acid (28.19%) and
stearic acid (19.45%). The thermal degradation of the oil was studied using Fourier Transform
Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). These were carried out by heating oil at different temperatures)
for duration of one hour each. Spectra were recorded from a film of each oil sample between two
disks of NaCl. Changes in the value of the frequency of most of the bands of the spectra were
observed. The shifts of the frequency value of specific bands allowed for distinction between the
different stages of the oxidation process and to establish the degree of oxidation each oil sample.
The elemental analysis of the oil ash using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) shows the
presence of Al 2136 ± 175ppm, Ca 4005± 62ppm, Ti 155± 40ppm, V 1.9± 0.3ppm. Mn 87±
9ppm, Na 2022± I13ppm, K 1986 201ppm, As 0.15± 0.01ppm, Br 1.8± 0.1ppm, La 0.46±
0.05ppm, Tb 0.5± 0.1ppm, Sc 0.16± 0.02ppm, Cr 7± 2ppm, Fe 3762± 200ppm, Zn 227± 15ppm
and Ba 3611± 345ppm.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page – – – – – – – – – – i
Title page – – – – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – iii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – v
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of content – – – – – – – – – viii
List of figures – – – – – – – – – – xiii
List of tables – – – – – – – – – – xiv
List of appendices – – – – – – – – – xv
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Classification – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1.1 Fixed Oil and Fat – – – – – – – – 1
1.1.2 Vegetable Oil and Fats – – – – – – – 2
1.1.3 Mineral Oil – – – – – – – – – 2
1.1.4 Volatile or Essential Oil – – – – – – – 2
I.1.5 Crude Fat – – – – – – – – – 2
1.1.6 Natural Fat – – – – – – – – – 2
1.1.7 Modified Fat – – – – – – – – 2
1.1.8 Synthetic Fat – – – – – – – – – 2
1.2 Uses of Animal Oil – – – – – – – – 2
1.3 Justification – – – – – – – – – 2
1.4 Aim and Objective – – – – – – – – 4
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – – – 5
2.1 Sources of Raw Material – – – – – – – 5
2.1.1 Agricultural Source of Industrial Raw Material – – – – 5
2.1.2 Fossil Source of Industrial Raw Material – – – – – 5
2.1.3 Inorganic Source of Industrial Raw Material – – – – – 5
2.2 Pig Production in Nigeria – – – – – – – 6
2.3 Pork Oil (Lard) – – – – – – – – 7
2.3.1 Depot Site and Fatty Acid Composition – – – – – 7
2.3.2 Effect of Diet on Lard Fatty Acid Composition – – – – 8
2.3.3 Non Fatty Acid Containing Component – – – – – 10
2.4 Occurrence and Formation of Fats and Oil – – – – – 10
2.4.1 Catabolism of Fats and Oil – – – – – – – 10
2.4.2 Metabolism of Fats – – – – – – – – 11
2.5 Constituence and Components of Fats and Oil – – – – 12
2.5.1 Simple Lipids – – – – – – – – – 13
2.5.1.1 Glyceride – – – – – – – – – 13
2.5.1.2 Fatty Acids – – – – – – – – – 14
2.5.1.3 Antioxidants – – – – – – – – – 15
2.5.1.4 Pigments – – – – – – – – – 16
2.5.1.5 Vitamins – – – – – – – – – 16
2.4.1.6 Sterols – – – – – – – – – 16
2.4.1.7 Minor Constituent – – – – – – – – 17
2.6 The Structure and Composition of Fats – – – – – – 17
2.6.1 Glyceride Structure – – – – – – – – 17
2.6.2 Classification and Fatty Acid Composition – – – – – 18
2.7 The Nature of Fats and Fatty Acids – – – – – – 20
2.7.1 Physical Properties – – – – – – – – 20
2.7.1.1 Colour and Spectral Properties – – – – – – 20
2.7.1.2 Refractive Index – – – – – – – – 21
2.7.1.3 Odour and Flavour – – – – – – – – 21
2.7.1.4 Solubility – – – – – – – – – 21
2.7.1.5 Isomerism – – – – – – – – – 22
2.7.2 Chemical Properties – – – – – – – – 22
2.7.2.1 Hydrolysis – – – – – – – – – 23
2.7.2.2 Esterification – – – – – – – – 23
2.7.2.3 Saponification – – – – – – – – 23
2.8 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) – – – – 24
2.9 Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) – – – – 26
2.9.1 Analysis Processes – – – – – – – – 27
2.9.2 Identification – – – – – – – – – 27
2.10 Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) – – – – – – 28
2.10.1 Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) – – – – – 28
2.10.2 Analysis – – – – – – – – – 29
2.10.3 Absolute Method – – – – – – – – 30
2.10.4 Relative Method – – – – – – – – 30
2.11 Fats and Oil Degradation – – – – – – – 30
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Material and Method – – – – – – – – 33
3.1 Sample- – – – – – – – – – 33
3.2 Physicochemical Properties – – – – – – – 33
3.2.1 Saponification Value – – – – – – – – 33
3.2.2 Iodine Value – – – – – – – – – 34
3.2.3 Acid Value – – – – – – – – – 36
3.2.4 Peroxide Value – – – – – – – – – 37
3.2.5 Hydroxyl Value (Acetyl Value) – – – – – – – 38
3.2.6 Ash Content – – – – – – – – – 40
3.2.7 Unsaponifiable Matter – – – – – – – – 40
3.2.8 Determination of Moisture Content (Air Oven Method) – – – 42
3.3 Fatty Acid Composition by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)
Principle – – – – – – – – – – 43
3.4Thermal Degradation Study Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry FTIR 45
3.5 Elemental Analysis Using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) – – – 45
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Result and Discussion – – – – – – – – 47
4.1 Physical and Chemical Properties – – – – – – 47
4.2 Fatty Acid Composition of Pork Oil – – – – – – 50
4.3 Elements in Pork Oil – – – – – – – – 53
4.4 Pork Oil Thermal Degradation Study Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
FTIR – – – – – – – – – – 55
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 61
References – – – – – – – – – 62

 

Project Topics

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION
The word oil has little specific meaning as it is applied to wide range of substances that are quite
different in chemical nature. They are derived mainly from two main source, plants and animals.
In Animals, they occur mainly in form of adipose tissue and as component of cells while in
plants they are mostly found in storage organ like seed (Deuel Jr., 1954).
Fats and fatty oil are water insoluble substances of plants and animal Origin which consist
mainly of glycerol esters of long chain fatty acids (Kirschenbauer, 1960). As a matter of fact,
there is no scientific differentiation between edible oils and fats and the two terms may be used
interchangeable. The common distinction between them is to consider solid product as fats and
liquid ones as oils. This difference is temperature dependent at high temperature all edible oils
and fats are liquid and at low temperature they appear to be solid. Even this latter statement is
only apparently true. As most natural fats while appearing solid at ambient temperature are
strictly blends of solid and liquid component (Hopkins, 1973). The products which form this
subject could equally well be referred to either as fatty oil or simply fats, irrespective of
consistency at ambient temperature.
1.2 CLASSIFICATION
The term oil has been applied in general usage to describe certain physical characteristics of
various substances rather than their chemical nature or composition. This common use has led to
confusion over the nature of oils and it is essential from the onset to understand their true
classification.
Oil and fats can be divided into groups according to both their origin and their chemical nature.
1.2.1 Fixed Oil and Fat
Animal fats derived from milk and body tissue of animals including marine animals.
1.2.2 Vegetable Oil and Fats
These are obtained from the fruits and seeds of a wide range of plants. These oils and fats are
esters of fatty acids (specifically glycerides) and are non-volatile.
1.2.3 Mineral Oil
These are distilled from petroleum and shale deposits this group of material include paraffin oil,
fuel oil and most lubricating oils.
1.2.4 Volatile Or Essential Oil
Oil of lemon, oil of clones and anamous oil these are obtained mainly from plant source.
Although, some are derived from animals. These oils are complex mixtures of aldehydes,
ketones, hydrocarbons alcohol, acid, and short chain esters. They are used for flavours,
perfumery and pharmaceutical purpose.
I.1.5 Crude Fat
These are completely untreated, as isolated from the oil bearing tissue. Crude oils are unpalatable
and hence inedible in this state.
1.4.6 Natural Fat
This may have been treated to remove the impurities which make them unpalatable but otherwise
have not been altered.
1.4.7 Modified Fat
These are fat or oil which has been changed by chemical treatment or physical separation to
produce a fat which is different from the original material.
1.4.8 Synthetic Fat
These are fats which have been chemically made from various source materials. Some have been
produced by oxidation of hydrocarbons to fatty acids which are then esterified with glycerol.
This process was operated on a large scale in Germany. However, not only was it costly, but the
fats produced contain unnatural fatty acids which were reported, to give rise to toxic effects
(Christie et al., 1972)
1.5 USES OF ANIMAL OIL
Animal Oils, like most vegetable oil and fat have found useful application in the industry and
commerce and as edible oil in several food preparations (Ekpeyong, 1989). Industrially, they are
used for example in foam, paint and surface coatings lubrications, adhesive plasticizers, textile
dyes, pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulation and many others (Terill and Ault, 1975; Burger,
1994).
1.6 JUSTIFICATION
Oils and fats are important parts of human diet and more than 90 percent of the world production
from vegetable, animal and marine source is used as food or as an ingredient in food products;
oils and fats is rich source of dietary energy and contains more than twice the caloric value of
equivalent amount of sugar. Their functional and textural characteristics contribute to the flavour
and palatability of natural and prepared foods. They contain certain fatty acids which play an
important role in nutrition and are also carriers of fats soluble vitamin (MMAF, 2005).
Many people in developing countries especially children under the age of five years suffer from
acute and chronic protein and energy deficiencies. At the current trend of population increase, it
is projected that, by the year 2020 there will be as many as 300 million chronically
undernourished people in the sub-Saharan Africa (Harsch, 1997). There is definitely a need for
food production to keep pace with the increase in world population. In order to achieve this
national development strategies in many agriculture-based tropical countries are now biased
toward increasing the diversity of consumable food productions in order to alleviate malnutrition
and stress on promotion and broadening of agricultural based industries to ensure that their
product are both whole some and safe.
The dietary role of edible oils and fats are highly recognised. The Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended an average
daily intake of 55g fat per capita to complement the requirement for energy (Kabyemela et al.,
1992) and a 20-30% conversion rate for fat to energy to ensure good health (WHO, 1994).
Pork oil therefore, an edible oil obtained from any source is justifiably an area worthy of quality
research time.
1.7 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
The aim and objective of this research work include the following;
a. To extract oil from a pig carcass obtained from a local dealer by dry rendering.
b. To investigate some physiochemical properties of the extracted oil in (a) above.
c. To investigate the fatty acid composition of the extracted oil in (a) using Gas
chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
d. To investigate the thermal stability of the extracted oil using Fourier Transform Infrared
Spectrometry (FTIR). Identify shift and changes in the oil bands.
e. To determine trace elements available in the extracted oil ash using Neutron Activation
Analysis (NAA).

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