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Gender Disparity in agricultural credit facilities or inputs distribution. A case study of Nasarawa local government area of Kano state.

Abstract

This study was on Gender Disparity in agricultural credit facilities or inputs distribution. A case study of Nasarawa local government area of Kano state. The total population for the study is 200 residents from Nasarawa local government area of Kano state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made married men, married women, youths and farmers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1Background of the study

Women’s contribution to economic development is hard to over-emphasize. In the agricultural sector of many developing countries, they represent the main driving force and spend considerable amount of time planting, weeding, ridging, and harvesting, while simultaneously doing their regular chores.

Two key features are prevalent in the Agricultural sector in Nigeria. The first one is the dominance of female labor in agriculture and the second one is the existence of a gender gap in agricultural productivity. The feminization of agriculture is evident in Nigeria, where women make up a higher proportion of agricultural labor than males, potentially ranging from 30 to 80 percent (UNECA 1982, FAO 1984, Doss 2011, Doss et al. 2011). Nevertheless, labor conditions in the rural sector are disadvantageous for women. The presence of gender differences in the rural sector is not surprising in the context of Malawi. In a 2004 survey, rural wages were 35% lower for females than males. Furthermore, around 89% of 3 employed women are engaged in part time off-farm activities, in contrast to 67% for male. Women participating in rural wage employment tended to be concentrated in lower skill activities- about 61.4 % – in contrast to the corresponding figure of 37% for males (Hertz et al. 2009).

The gender differentials in agricultural productivity range from 4 to 40 percent conditional on the country, the representativeness of the data, the type of crop, and the composition of households among other variables (Akresh, 2005; Alene et al., 2008; Gilbert et al., 2002; Goldstein and Udry, 2008; Moock 1976; Peterman et al., 2011; Oladeebo and Fajuyigbe, 2007; Quisumbing et al., 2001; Saito et al., 1994; Tiruneh et al., 2001; Udry, 1996; Vargas Hill and Vigneri, 2011). The disparity of large participation of women in agriculture, and the significant gender gap in agricultural productivity are the prime motivations for this study. The implications of both characteristics are that the agricultural sector may lag behind its potential in terms of productivity, and that a gender dimension exists within the issue at hand. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying reasons behind the differences in agricultural productivity between female and male farmers.

Several key reasons for the observed gender gap in agricultural productivity have been identified in the literature: gender differences in (i) access and use of agricultural inputs, (ii) tenure security and related investments in land and improved technologies, (iii) market and credit access, (iv) human and physical capital, and (v) informal and institutional constraints affecting farm/plot management and marketing of agricultural produce (Peterman et al. 2011). Cultural roles that are assigned to males and females regarding domestic duties as well as other factors that may underlie the gender segregation in crop production (i.e. staple vs. cash crop cultivation, high-yielding vs. low-yielding variety cultivation, etc.) could be thought of as informal institutional constraints

Statement of the problem

Agriculture remains the main source of livelihood for the majority of the population in rural areas. Over 80% of the population is estimated to be engaged in subsistence farming (ISPEDC, 2006). In recent times, the neglect of the agricultural sector, coupled with industrialization and rural-urban migration, has widened the gap between food supply and demand. This situation is made CODESRIA – LIBRARY worse by the migration of men, who are the major land owners, to the nonagricultural sector. Consequently, women are in recent times, major stakeholders in agriculture. Studies by Nwankwo and Eboh (1998), and Mathews-Njoku, Adesope and Asiabaka (2007) confirmed that in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state, women are at the forefront of agricultural production. This is in addition to their domestic roles as homemakers. In spite of these developments, roles and production resources are sharply divided along gender line. In Nasarawa local government area of Kano state., it is commonly known that there is demarcation between what men and women do. For instance women are known to cook, clean the house, wash the cloths as well as care for children, and these roles are performed regularly. Men, on the other hand are known to provide maintenance services such as pruning trees and flowers around the house, mending damaged fence as well as roofs. However these services do not occur regularly. This explains why men, according to BNRCC (2010), “are often able to focus on a particular productive role, and play their multiple roles sequentially. Women, in contrast to men, must often play their roles simultaneously, and balance competing claims on time for each of them”. Similarly, farm roles are most times divided along gender line in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state. CODESRIA – LIBRARY for instance men often engage in such tasks as bush clearing, land cultivation and yam staking. On the other hand, women mostly engage in such tasks as planting, weeding and food processing among others. Based on this the researcher wants to investigate Gender Disparity in agricultural credit facilities or inputs distribution. A case study of Nasarawa local government area of Kano state

Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To examine the extant nature of disparity in allocation of roles (domestic and farm) between male and female farmers in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state.
  2. To examine the disparity in access to production resources (land, labour and capital) between male and female farmers in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state.
  3. To examine the socio-demographic profile of the population engaged in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state.
  4. To examine the disparity in agricultural credit facilities in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state

Research hypotheses

The following have been put forward for testing

H0: There is no extant nature of disparity in allocation of roles (domestic and farm) between male and female farmers in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state

H1:  There is extant nature of disparity in allocation of roles (domestic and farm) between male and female farmers in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state

H0: there is no disparity in agricultural credit facilities in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state

H2: there is disparity in agricultural credit facilities in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state

 Significance of the study

 The study will be very significant to students and policy makers. The study will give clear insight on the Gender Disparity in agricultural credit facilities or inputs distribution. A case study of Nasarawa local government area of Kano state. The study will also serve as a reference to other researcher that will embark on the related topic

Scope and limitation of the study

The scope of the study covers Gender Disparity in agricultural credit facilities or inputs distribution. A case study of Nasarawa local government area of Kano state. The researcher encounters some constraints which limit the scope of the study namely:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Definition of terms

Credit facility: credit facility is a type of loan made in a business or corporate finance context. It allows the borrowing business to take out money over an extended period of time rather than reapplying for a loan each time it needs money

Gender: either of the two sexes (male and female), especially when considered with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones. The term is also used more broadly to denote a range of identities that do not correspond to established ideas of male and female

Disparity: Disparity is the condition of being unequal, and a disparity is a noticeable difference.

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