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ABSTRACT

World over, there has been an increasing research into the field of Geographic Information System (GIS) with particular emphasis on addressing myriads of day to day issues with the application. One of such area that has received wide attention is Transportation Planning. This therefore underscores the urgency and appropriateness of this research. This dissertation puts forward an efficient method for the Traffic Analysis Zoning (TAZ) of the Federal Capital City (FCC) which is necessary for implementing a planning process with Geographic Information System (GIS) for Transportation (GIS‐T), using statistical spatial data analyses and GIS technology. The major roles of GIS in this method includes the production of basic spatial units (BSUs) with topological data structure, the integration of various procedures during the TAZ generation including computer program routines and the visualization of the output of each TAZ generation. One of the most significant reasons for obtaining well‐defined TAZs is the fact that they are defined at the outset of transportation demand modeling, used from trip generation to trip assignment, and will ultimately affect transportation policy decisions.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………………………………..…i
Declaration …………………………………………………………….…ii
Dedication …………………………………………………………….…iii
Certification …………………………………………………………….……iv
Acknowledgement…………………………………….……………………….v
Abstract ……………………………………………………………….vi
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………vii
List of Figures ………………………………………………………………ix
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………..xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Preamble ………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Geographical Information System for Transportation (GIS-T)………2
1.3 Aim……………………………………………………………………3
1.4 Statement of Research Problem………………………………………………….3
1.5 Objective…………………………………………………………….4
1.6 Justification………………………………………………………….4
1.7 Scope of work ……………………………………………………….5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction and Research Background……………………………….6
2.2 Traffic Analysis Zone ………………………………………………..7
2.2.1 Work zone and Traffic Analysis……………………………………..8
2.2.2 Quickzone……………………………………………………………9
2.2.3 Desire Line…………………………………………………………..10
2.2.3 Geographic Area Description………………………………….…….12
2.2.4 A Recommended Approach to Delineating Traffic Analysis Zone…12
2.3 Zone Size and Quantity……………………………………………..14
2.3.1 Internal Verses External Zone……………………………………….16
2.4 Boundary Compatibility……………………………………………..16
2.4.1 Physical Geography………………………………………………….16
2.4.2 Census Geography ……………………………………………….19
2.4.3 Political Geography………………………………………………….26
2.4.4 Planning District and Sectors………………………………………….28
2.4.5 Irregular Zone Geography………………………………………..…28
2.5 Socioeconomic Data…………………………………………………28
2.5.1 Homogeneous Land uses…………………………………………….28
2.5.2 Special Generators…………………………………………………..31
2.6 Access ……………………………………………………….32
2.6.1 Transit Access……………………………………………………….32
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2.6.2 Freight/Intermodal Needs……………………………………………41
2.7 Centroid Connectors…………………………………………………44
2.7.1 Existing Transportation Facilities……………………………………45
2.7.2 TAZ Numbering………………………………………………………47
2.7.3 Future Year TAZ Consideration……………………………………..47
2.7.4 Planned Transportation Corridors…………………………………….48
2.7.5 Development of Regional impact……………………………….…….49
2.7.6 Population and Trips Per Zone………………………………….…….49
2.7.7 Network Data Impacts………………………………………….……..50
2.8 Socioeconomic Data Impact…………………………………………..50
2.8.1 Household Data………………………………………………….……50
2.8.2 Employment Data……………………………………………….…….53
2.8.3 Other Data Element……………………………………………..…..56
2.8.4 Handling Boundary Shift and Zone Aggregation…………………….59
2.8.5 Zone beyond Model Boundary………………………………………..64
2.8.6 Revalidation…………………………………………………………..64
2.8.7 Effects of Traffic Analysis Zones Design on Transportation Mode….65
2.8.8 The State of the Art about Territory Modeling………………………66
2.9 The Geographical Information System Layers………………………69
2.9.1 Zoning of Study Area………………………………………………..70
2.9.2 Modeling of Transport Supply System……………………………….72
2.9.3 The Estimate of Transportation Demand & Assignment to Network..73
2.8.4 Comparison & Evaluation 0f Numeric Results………………………74
2.9.5 2000 Transportation Analysis Zone Structure……………………….76
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Materials and Methods………………………………………………79
3.1 Background…………………………………………………………79
3.2 Flowchart……………………………………………………………80
3.3 Ground Control Point ………………………………………………81
3.4 Location of study Area………………………………………………82
3.5 GIS Layers…………………………………………………………..83
3.5.1 Layers Features………………………………………………………83
3.5.2 Features have Shape and Size……………………………………….83
3.5.3 Features have Locations……………………………………………..83
3.5.4 Features have Zooming Technique………………………………….84
3.5.5 Features are linked to Information…………………………………..84
3.5.6 Features have Spatial Relationships…………………………………88
3.5.7 The Arcmap, Arcatalog & Arctoolbox Applications…………………88
3.6 Criteria……………………………………………………………….92
3.6.1 Physical Geography of Study Area………………………………….92
3.6.2 Adopted Zoning Structure……………………………………………92
3.6.3 Methodology of O-D Matrix Generation……………………….…….95
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CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION OF RESULT
4.0 Application of the Program And Discussion Of Results…………………100
4.1 Data Description……………………………………………………..100
4.2 Analysis of the Data Collected……………………………………….100
4.2.1 Attribute Table Shows O.D Matrix Data…………………………….100
4.2.2 Querying Data in Arcmap……………………………………………102
4.2.3 Selecting Features by Attribute………………………………………106
4.2.4 Selecting Features by Location………………………………………108
4.2.5 A Typical Example of Desire Line…………………………………..109
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………111
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………….112
REFERENCES……………………………………………………….113

 

Project Topics

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 1.1 PREAMBLE The applications of a GIS are vast and continue to grow. By using Geographic Information System (GIS) scientist can research changes in the environment, engineers can design road systems, electrical companies can manage their complex network of power lines; governments can track the uses of land, and police departments can plan emergency routes. Many private businesses have begun to use a GIS to plan and improve their services. The Canadian government built the first GIS, the Canada Geographic information system during the 1960s to analyze data collected by the Canada land inventory (Miller and Shawn 2001). Other government and university laboratories soon built simulator similar systems. However, GIS systems were not widely used until the late 1970s, when technological improvements and lower costs made computer widely available. GIS sales boomed during the 1980s, as government and businesses found more users for the systems. A number of companies began producing new GIS software to program computer systems to increase their functions. As at the early 1990s, about 100,000 GIS systems were already in Operation (Shawn 2002).
Over the years, there have been much progress in all facets of GIS in transportation planning known as GIS-T and a wide variety of applications have emerged. A number of notable GIS and related advances have paved the way to the application in urban transportation. These include; data capture methods, spatial integration technologies, technology platform, GIS as a platform for modeling transportation system, web technologies, and organizational facilitators. Brief descriptions are provided in this research work. Owing to favourable future conditions, it is expected that GIS will play an increasingly important role in transport planning and management (Peak 2000).
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1.2 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR TRANSPORTATION (GIS-T)
In a broad sense a geographic information system (GIS) is an information system specializing in the input, management, analysis and reporting of geographical (spatially related) information. Among the wide range of potential applications, GIS can be used for, transportation issues have received a lot of attention. (A specific branch of GIS applied to transportation issues, commonly labeled as GIS-T, has emerged). Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T) refers to the principles and applications of applying geographic information technologies to transportation problems [Miller and Shaw, 2001]. GIS-T research can be approached from two different, but complementary, directions. While some GIS-T research focuses on issues of how GIS can be further developed and enhanced in order to meet the needs of transportation applications, other GIS-T research investigates the questions of how GIS can be used to facilitate and improve transportation studies [Shaw, 2002]. Transportation planning is the process of examining travel and transportation issues and needs in traffic areas. It includes a demographic analysis of the community in question, as well as an examination of travel patterns and trends. The planning process includes an analysis of alternatives to meet projected future demands, and for providing a safe and efficient transportation system that meets mobility while not creating adverse impacts to the environment. In Municipal areas with over 50,000 populations, the responsibility for transportation planning lies with designated Municipal Planning Organizations (MPO).
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Fig 1.1: Typical transportation planning process for a municipal area. For effective planning and for digital analysis, the process of delineation must be considered. 1.3 AIM The aim of this research is to create a framework for the Traffic Analysis Zoning (TAZ) of Federal Capital City (FCC) using Geographical information System (GIS). 1.4 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Although the benefits of GIS are vast and continues to increase, there has to be a specific framework for harnessing such benefits. In developed countries, GIS is widely used address transportation issues. Such advancement however came as a result of the organized computer-based framework for the analysis and processing of transportation related data. There is therefore the need to create a GIS
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framework for transportation issues in developing nations such as Nigeria so that the immense benefits of GIS becomes readily accessible to all and most especially planners at all levels. 1.5 OBJECTIVE To achieve this aim, the following are the objectives:
1. Digitizing the map of the Study area.
2. Creating a database for the planning.
3. Generating data analysis using Arc 9.3.
4. Creation of Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) map.
5. Creation of Origin and Destination Survey Matrix(O-D Matrix)
6. Creation of Desired Line
1.6 JUSTIFICATION The study is meant to highlight GIS as a planning tool for transport planners, the benefit of which is hoped to harness the following. Data collection cost reduction, data maintenance cost reduction, improved data reliability and most important application not otherwise possible. Integration of data which generally makes it possible to study many relationships among two or more data element. Growth in integration system which will affect the cost of providing linkage rapidly by the value of the increase in information that the system provides.
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Forecasting of future plans in traffic zone analysis as it affects transportation impact analysis and public transit operation.
1.7 SCOPE OF WORK The research work will cover the following areas: Overview of GIS – T. Analysis of Traffic Analysis Zoning. Delineation of Traffic Analysis Zones. Generation of O-D Matrix. Creation of desire line using GIS.
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