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ABSTRACT

A comparative investigation was undertaken to determine the head loss coefficients for horizontally mounted and vertically mounted orifices using a Fluid mechanics and Heat transfer trainer developed in Nigeria. Experiments were carried out observing the procedure and the discharge of the flow of water was collected to obtain the volumetric flow rate and also read off the right and left limb of the horizontal and vertical manometers at different set points. The experimental measurements were subjected to further study to determine the head loss using the applied Bernoulli’s equation with addition of pump to the system. A graph of head loss against the kinetic head of water was plotted and the gradient of the graph yield the head loss coefficient (k). It was observed that there was no significant difference between the head loss coefficient for horizontal and vertical orifices. Hypothesis test was done to test the accuracy, precision and the statistical reliability of the head loss coefficient for the horizontal and vertical orifices, however better result was recorded in the horizontal orifice by statistical analysis. This report provides conclusion and recommendation to the challenges experienced.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the study
Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all fluids under static and dynamic situations. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces, motions, and statical conditions in a continuous material. This study area deals with many and diversified problems such as surface tension, fluid statics, flow in enclose bodies, or flow round bodies (solid or otherwise), flow stability, etc. In fact, almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a fluid mechanics problem. Researchers distinguish between orderly flow and chaotic flow as the laminar flow and the turbulent flow. The fluid mechanics can also be distinguished between a single phase flow and multiphase flow (flow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material).
Fluid flow in circular and noncircular pipes is commonly encountered in practice. The hot and cold water that we use in our homes is pumped through pipes. Water in a city is distributed by extensive piping networks. Oil and natural gas are transported hundreds of miles by large pipelines. Blood is carried throughout our bodies by veins. The cooling water in an engine is transported by hoses to the pipes in the radiator where it is cooled as it flows.

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