1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Student’s health has been a major contributing factor to their academic performances over the years because it determines the student’s ability to read and prepare for his examinations; it even defines the ability of the student to write very well inside the hall which are primary aim of a student going to school. Health defined by WHO is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social changes.
It is a widely accepted fact that students are known for their laziness and ego, many of them tend to leave their area of residence without taking care of it only to be waiting for cleaners to clean it for them but even as that the hostels are always very dirty because things are not done appropriately for example a student urinating in the front of the hostel where it shouldn’t be is indirectly calling for mosquitoes to breed around the hostel and this is also the case in the area of focus for this study, which is the University of Calabar.
Waste generation is a major cause of dirtiness in the hostel due to the large number of students and if not properly manage may cause a lot of harm than good, wastes are generated on daily basis through different activities of human being and if not disposed of properly the way it should,they lead to pollution of the environment having serious implications on the health of the students residing in the hostel (Earthwatch, 2007). Different institutional bodies have been set up at different levels for environmental sanitations and tertiary institution like the University of Calabar is of no difference so as to ensure that students waste are properly disposed in a quest for the students residing in the hostel to be in good health. In a study carried out by Ogeah and Ikelegbe (2007) reveals that students are nonchalant about the cleanliness of their hostels and their environment generally. They further illustrated that even with availability of cleaners that students contribute to the poor hostel sanitation practices and this go a long way to affect the students’ health. Students contribute to poor hostel sanitation practicesby the laziness of students to use facilities provided by the school authority for waste disposal in the hostels. Outside cleaning their rooms in the hostels most of the students feel it is humiliating for them to tidy their surroundings. Even though the University system has hired cleaners to clean the hostels these cleaners are poorly supervised and with them not doing their jobs properly the hostel surrounding becomes a breeding site for all sorts of dangerous insects and pests such as mosquito which can expose the students to malaria, tsetse fly which when a student is bitten by will cause sleeping sickness and some many more insect with different health complications, even some students go as far as urinating and defecating indiscriminately outside the hostels because they cannot clean the dirty toilets themselves and in the long run they will still come to those polluted areas to carry out their daily activities like cooking, washing of clothes etc
World Health Organization defined sanitation as the means of collecting and disposing excreta and community liquids, waste in a hygienic way so as not to endanger the health and welfare of beings and also for the social and environmental effects, it may have on people; people have been suffering from one disease to another without knowing the problems of their illness, the situation and due to distress or dirty environment (Earthwatch, 2007).
Good sanitation practices occurs where the environment is clean concurring with the School Sanitation Consultative Meeting Report (1999) which defined it as personal and universal cleanliness. Burnet (1995) clearly stated that living and learning conditions in institutions affect the critical thinking, intellectual development and aesthetic appreciation of students. In school hostels;where one of the major problems is overcrowding and this has gone a long way to affect students’ health. More than 200 students share four (4) toilets. Mostly girls in hostel have inadequate sanitation facilities. Inadequate sanitation in school hostel has jeopardized student’s health; girls in the hostel are even affected more in this situation. From the foregoing, it is of upmost importance to find out the effect of hostel sanitation practices arising as a result of the scenario on student’s health.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Knowing fully the importance of cleanliness, sanitation and its effect on one’s health, one still find that the school hostels in Nigeriauniversities are very dirty. It becomes necessary to find out to what extent particularly students, in the universities are involved in hostel environmental sanitation considering the increase in the prevalence of diseases that are hygiene related However, thisresearchwill focus on the examination of the hostel sanitation practices using the University of Calabar as a case study, and the its effect on the health of students.This study will also find out how to encourage hostel sanitation practices amongst the students. This study will be approached by identify the mechanism adopted in ensuring the cleanliness of the students hostel both by the management and students themselves. This study will also analyze the frequency of student illnesses that can be associated poor sanitary practices as way of identifying the effect of hostel sanitary practices on student’s health.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The general objective of this study is to analyze the concept of hostel sanitation practices and its effect on student’s health in the University of Calabar. The specific objectives are to;
1. To identify the hostel sanitation practices in University of Calabar
2. To examine the effect of hostel sanitation practices on student’s health in the University of Calabar
3. To examine the effectiveness of hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar
4. To identify the challenges facing hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar
5. To examine the view of students towards hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the hostel sanitation practices in University of Calabar?
2. What is the effect of hostel sanitation practices on student’s health in the University of Calabar?
3. What is the effectiveness of hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar?
4. What are the challenges facing hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar?
5. What are the views of students towards hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
HO1: There is no significant effect of hostel sanitation practices on students’ health in the University of Calabar
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
1. The outcome of this research will create awareness to both the general public and students staying in any tertiary institution hostel about the effect of hostel sanitation practices on their health.
2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the hostel sanitation practices and its effect on student’s health, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
This study is limited to the student’s hostel in University of Calabar. It will also cover the opinion of the students about hostel sanitation practices and its effect on student’s health.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Hostel: Hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge and sometimes a kitchen
Sanitation: Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater.
Practice: a theoretical term for human action in society
Effect: A result or change of something
Health:Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social changes.
Student: is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution
Ogeah, F. N. and Ikelegbe, O.O (2007): A multidisciplinary journal (nafak) National Association for the Advancement of Knowledge. vol. 15, no. 1.
Burnet, G. (1995). Overcrowding in urban schools. ERIC clearing house on urban education. ERIC/CUE Digest, No. 107, Available from http://www.webnf2.epnet.com/fulltext.asp?r….ditions%20 & fuzzterms (Accessed on 21st June, 2002)
Earthwatch (2007). Environmental Carer. Earthwatch Nigerian Magazine for Environment and Development, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Environmental Matters (2005) Annual Review World Bank. Washington D.C[email protected].[email protected].