Diabetic mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion , insulin action or both . The deficiency of insulin leads to chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate , fats and protein metabolism. Kigelia Africana is a sausage tree known to have medicinal values. The aim of this work is to evaluate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant capacity of the plant , methanol leaf extract of kigelia Africana which was used for the study. The leaves were ground into a powdered form , weighed and soaked with 500ml of methanol for 72hours. It was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated using rotary evaporator at 30 degrees centigrade. Alloxan was induced into 15 male wister albino rats and 5 male wister albino rats were used for the normal control group. They were grouped into four groups : group 1 which was the normal contol group , group 2 was the diabetic rats not treated , group 3 the diabetic rats treated with the standard drug (Glibenclamide) , group 4 diabetic rats treated with 500mg/kg body weight of the extract of kigelia Africana orally for 14 days. The rats were bled and their blood sample were collected and assayed for the biochemical parameters. The result showed that there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) inTAG for the group four which received the plant extract compared to the normal in group one. For total protein it showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the total protein level of the treated groups compared to the normal.The results obtained in GPX study when compared to the normal control showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the group four treated with the extract.An increase (p<0.05) not too significant was observed in the test group 4 MDA treated with the plant extract compared with other groups.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ii
Certification Page iii
Approval page iv
Table of content ix
- Background of study 1
- Statement of the problem 2
- Aim of the study 2
- Objectives of the study 3
2.1 General information 4
2.2 Origin and geographical distribution 5
2.3 Scientific classification 6
2.4 Medical benefits of kigelia Africana 7
2.4.1 Antibacterial and antifungal 8
2.4.2 Alternative uses of kigelia Africana 9
2.4.3 Chemical constituents of kigelia Africana 12
2.5 Alloxan 13
2.5.1 Chemical structure of alloxan 14
2.5.2 Mechanism of alloxan 14
2.5.3 Chemical properties of alloxan 14
2.5.4 Impact of alloxan upon beta cells 15
2.6 Diabetes mellitus 16
2.6.1 Types ofdiabetes 17
2.6.2 Risk factors of diabetes 18
2.7 Hypolipidermia 19
2.7.1 Lipid peroxidation 19
2.8 Antioxidant 20
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Chemical and reagents 22
3.2 Equipments 22
3.3 Materials 22
3.4 The plant 22
3.4.1 Extract preparation 22
3.4.2 Prepration of extract for administration 23
3.5 Experimental animal 23
3.5.1 Animal separation, induction and treatment measures 23
3.6 Determination of biochemical parameters 24
3.6.1 Determination of total protein concentration 24
3.6.2 Determination of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) 26
3.6.3 Determination of glutathione peroxidase(GPX) 27
3.6.4 Determination of triacylglycerides(TAG) 28
3.6.5 Determination of the glucose level 28
4.1 Triacylglycerides 30
4.2 Total protein 31
4.3 Glutathione peroxidase 32
4.4 Malondialdehyde 33
4.5 Percentage yield for extract 34
4.6 Reading for glucose test 34
5.1 Disscussion 36
5.2 Conclusion 39
5.3 Recommendation 39
5.3 References 40
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Insulin deficiency in turn leads to chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism (Kumar et al., 2011). During diabetes, failure of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by fat and muscle cause glucose concentration in the blood to remain high, consequently glucose uptake by insulin independent tissue increases. Increased glucose flux both enhances oxidant production and impairs antioxidant defenses by multiple interacting non-enzymatic, enzymatic and mitochondrial pathways. This hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress ultimately results in modification of intracellular proteins resulting in an altered function and DNA damage, activation of the cellular transcription (NFK B), causing abnormal changes in gene expression, decreased production of nitric oxide, and increased expression of cytokines, growth factors and pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory molecules.
The plant kigelia Africanahas many medicinal properties due to the presence of numerous secondary metabolites. These compounds include iridiods, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and volatile constituents (Houghton,2002). Experimentally, the plant has shown antibacterial, antifungal, antineoplastic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (Saini et al., 2009). Crude extracts of herbs and spices and other materials rich in phenolics are of increasing interest in the food industry because they retard oxidative degradation of lipids and thereby improving the quality and nutritional value of food. Flavonoids, are groups of polyphenoli compounds with known properties, which include free radical-scavenging and antinflammatory activities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Improvement has occurred in global health status in the past century which is now a cause for celebration. Therefore, public health professionals can feel proud of their contribution to these achievement even as they appreciate the complexity of the underlying driving force, many of which lie outside tradition public health work.but this satisfaction must be tempered by emerging concerns against the recent evidence suggesting that based current trends many low income countries are unlikely to achieve desired health target by 2015 due to devastating disease and overwhelming failing health system.
The literature review survey revealed that there is no experiment evidence of antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of the plant . Therefore the present work was undertaken to explore the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic potential of kigelia Africana methanol leaf extract of the plant in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY
The research is aimed at investigating the hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol leaf extract of kigelia Africana in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- Determine the effect of kigelia Africana methanol leaf extract on antioxidant enzymes.
- Determine the effect of kigelia Africana methanol leaf extract onMDA of diabetic rats.
- Determine the effect of kigelia Africana methanol leaf extract on oxidative parameters of alloxan induced diabetic rats.
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