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ABSTRACT

Diabetic mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion , insulin action or both . The deficiency of insulin leads to chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate , fats  and protein metabolism. Kigelia Africana is a sausage tree known to have medicinal values. The aim of this work is to evaluate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant capacity of the plant , methanol leaf extract of kigelia Africana which was used for the study. The leaves were ground into a powdered form , weighed  and soaked with 500ml of methanol for 72hours. It was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated using rotary evaporator at 30 degrees centigrade. Alloxan was induced into 15 male wister albino rats and 5 male wister albino rats were used for the normal control group. They were grouped into four groups : group 1 which was the normal contol group , group 2 was the diabetic rats not treated  , group 3 the diabetic rats treated with the standard drug (Glibenclamide) , group 4 diabetic rats treated with 500mg/kg body weight of the extract of kigelia Africana orally for 14 days. The rats were bled and their blood sample were collected and assayed for the biochemical parameters. The result showed that there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) inTAG for  the group four which received the  plant extract compared to the normal in group one. For total protein it showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the total protein level of the treated groups compared to the normal.The results obtained in GPX study when compared to the normal control showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the group four treated with the extract.An  increase (p<0.05) not too significant was observed in the test group 4 MDA  treated with the plant extract compared with other groups.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                            ii

                  

Certification Page                                                                                        iii

Approval page                                                                                                       iv

Dedication                                                                                                             v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                vi

Abstract                                                                                                                viii

Table of content                                                                                                   ix

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background of study 1
  • Statement of the problem                                                                          2
  • Aim of the study 2
  • Objectives of the study 3

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 General information                                                                               4

2.2 Origin and geographical distribution                                                       5

2.3 Scientific classification                                                                          6

2.4 Medical benefits of kigelia Africana                                                       7

2.4.1 Antibacterial and antifungal                                                                8

2.4.2 Alternative uses of kigelia Africana                                                     9

2.4.3 Chemical constituents of kigelia Africana                                            12

2.5 Alloxan                                                                                                 13

2.5.1 Chemical structure of alloxan                                                                   14

2.5.2 Mechanism of alloxan                                                                         14

2.5.3 Chemical properties of alloxan                                                            14

2.5.4 Impact of alloxan upon beta cells                                                         15

2.6 Diabetes mellitus                                                                                   16

2.6.1 Types ofdiabetes                                                                                 17

2.6.2 Risk factors of diabetes                                                                       18

2.7 Hypolipidermia                                                                                     19

2.7.1 Lipid peroxidation                                                                              19

2.8 Antioxidant                                                                                           20

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Chemical and reagents                                                                           22

3.2 Equipments                                                                                           22

3.3 Materials                                                                                               22

3.4 The plant                                                                                               22

3.4.1 Extract preparation                                                                              22

3.4.2 Prepration of extract for administration                                                23     

3.5 Experimental animal                                                                              23

3.5.1 Animal separation, induction and treatment measures                           23

3.6 Determination of biochemical parameters                                               24

3.6.1 Determination of total protein concentration                                        24

3.6.2 Determination of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde)                        26

3.6.3 Determination of glutathione peroxidase(GPX)                                    27

3.6.4 Determination of triacylglycerides(TAG)                                             28

3.6.5 Determination of the glucose level                                                       28

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS

4.1 Triacylglycerides                                                                                   30

4.2 Total protein                                                                                          31

4.3 Glutathione peroxidase                                                                          32

4.4 Malondialdehyde                                                                                   33

4.5 Percentage yield for extract                                                                         34

4.6 Reading for glucose test                                                                              34

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Disscussion                                                                                           36

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                            39

5.3 Recommendation                                                                                         39

5.3 References                                                                                             40

APPENDIX                                                                                                 42

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Insulin deficiency in turn leads to chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism (Kumar et al., 2011). During diabetes, failure of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by fat and muscle cause glucose concentration in the blood to remain high, consequently glucose uptake by insulin independent tissue increases. Increased glucose flux both enhances oxidant production and impairs antioxidant defenses by multiple interacting non-enzymatic, enzymatic and mitochondrial pathways. This hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress ultimately results in modification of intracellular proteins resulting in an altered function and DNA damage, activation of the cellular transcription (NFK B), causing abnormal changes in gene expression, decreased production of nitric oxide, and increased expression of cytokines, growth factors and pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory molecules.

The plant kigelia Africanahas many medicinal properties due to the presence of numerous secondary metabolites. These compounds include iridiods, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and volatile constituents (Houghton,2002). Experimentally, the plant has shown antibacterial, antifungal, antineoplastic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (Saini et al., 2009). Crude extracts of herbs and spices and other materials rich in phenolics are of increasing interest in the food industry because they retard oxidative degradation of lipids and thereby improving the quality and nutritional value of food. Flavonoids, are groups of polyphenoli compounds with known properties, which include free radical-scavenging and antinflammatory activities.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM         

Improvement  has occurred in global health status in the past century which is now a cause for celebration. Therefore, public health professionals can feel proud of their contribution to these achievement even as they appreciate the complexity of the underlying driving force, many of which lie outside tradition public health work.but this satisfaction must be tempered by emerging concerns against the recent evidence suggesting that based current trends many low income countries are unlikely to achieve desired health target by 2015 due to devastating disease and overwhelming failing health system.

The literature review survey revealed that there is no experiment evidence  of antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of the plant . Therefore the present work was undertaken to explore the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic potential of kigelia Africana methanol leaf extract  of the plant in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

 

1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY

The research is aimed at investigating the hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol leaf extract of kigelia Africana in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

 

 

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Specifically to

  1. Determine the effect of kigelia Africana methanol leaf extract on antioxidant enzymes.
  2. Determine the effect of kigelia Africana methanol leaf extract onMDA of diabetic rats.
  3. Determine the effect of kigelia Africana methanol leaf extract on oxidative parameters of alloxan induced diabetic rats.

 

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