1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The issue of academic performance in business education in our secondary schools has become the concern of parents, government and every citizen in our society. It is evident by the level of failure in the junior secondary certificates examination and other examination results taken in Business Studies in Nigeria.
According to the National policy on Education (2004), Business education known as business studies at the secondary school level is splited into the following components or subject areas: shorthand, office practice, book-keeping and typewriting at the Junior Secondary School level while at the Senior Secondary School level we have Shorthand, Typewriting, Economics, Commerce and Accounts.
In the National policy on education of (2004), it was stated that the preparation of the individual to fit into his society and train his mind to understand the world around him is one of the goals of education. Based on this, the students must be motivated to learn and become part of the learning process in the school. By being motivated in various ways such as the use of appropriate teaching aids for example typewriter to teach typewriting lesson, the use of good teaching methods, good classroom management. (Alaba Olaleken 2002), with all these, the students will put in more efforts as their interest is stimulated.
The present system of education makes provision for business studies at the Junior Secondary level. Consequently, a large number of the students enrol for these subjects in both the junior secondary school examinations.
Business studies subjects should be taught by well qualified and knowledgeable teachers in the area of the subject matter. Parents and students need to be well informed about relevance of each subject being taught in the secondary schools. This will encourage or motivate students to study harder especially those who have interest in such career.
Having identified some of the factors that could motivate students at the secondary schools level, the next question that comes to the mind is who is largely responsible for the task of motivating students to take up each subject being taught in their various schools? It is of course the teacher.
Here the governments together with the parents and the general public on several occasions have attributed the poor students performance in business studies to teacher’s nonchalant attitude to work (Ali, 2003).
The concise Oxford Dictionary (2000), defined a teacher as “one who gives lessons especially at school” therefore the teacher is expected to achieve the National objective of education by directing the learning of students and at the same time motivating them to take up subjects that will be of use to them in future.
Therefore, the classroom management by the teacher should be done effectively to achieve the stated objectives.
It could be seen that motivation is one of the essential tools for behavioral modification or social control in the instructional procedure of informing and explaining the question. Therefore, business studies teachers need to demonstrate high sense of dedication and commitment to the teaching of the subject to reflect the high performance place on it as a core subject by the Federal government.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The performance of students in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in business studies is appalling. Various factors have been adduced for poor performance of students in the subject area. The interest of students in business education, students task orientation and skill acquisition, students personality and self concept (more 1973), feeling of inadequacy (Callahan, 1971), shortage of qualified teachers (Ohuche, 1970), poor facilities, equipment and instructional materials for effective teaching (Oshibodu, 1984 and Akpan, 1987).
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study sought to explain learning outcomes in Junior Secondary Business Studies in terms of motivating students towards academic gains in the subject.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study is guided by the following questions:
1. Does motivation have any impact on students academic performance is Business Education.
2. Does a task value have any significant role on students motivation?
3. Do teachers have any relevant role in improving the performance capabilities of the students through motivation?
4. Do students require any incentive before they can perform well in their academic work?
5. Does the family motivation determine the rate of students’ performance in their school work?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the impact of motivations of academic performance of male and female students in business studies.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the academic performance of highly motivated and lowly motivated students in business studies achievement test.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be to the Government, Educationist, Teachers, Employers of labor and the Parents – teacher association as it exposes to them some of the problems which affects high performance in business studies.
The findings of this study will help to provide ways in which students can be motivated toward effective performances in business studies. The suggestions and recommendations to be made in this study will assist the different groups and agent concerned with curriculum and instructional development in making appropriate decisions regarding improvement in the teaching of business studies which would finally increase their performances.
Generally, this study will seek to provide the future Educationist The solution on how to increase students performances in business studies as well as in other related subject.
1.7 SCOPE OR DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to five (5) secondary schools in Shomolu local government area of Lagos state. These are:
7 Eva Adelaja Junior Secondary Grammar School.
8 Baptist Junior High School.
9 Igbobi Junior Girls High School.
10 Gbagada Comprehensive Junior High School.
11 Morocco Comprehensive Junior High School.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
In the light of this study, the following assumptions have been made:
a. It is assumed that students can be motivated in school to improve their performances.
b. Effective classroom management in schools by teachers can go a long way to motivate students to improve them academically.
c. Teachers with high morale due to job satisfaction can achieve the goals of motivation better than teachers with low morale.
d. Finally, this study assumes that the school environment and the students socio-economic background has a part to play in motivating the students.
1.9 CLARIFICATION OF MAJOR VARIABLES AND TERMS
Most of the terms and concepts used in this study have loaded meanings and applications. It is therefore necessary to define them as they would be used in this study.
MOTIVATION: Power of moving
PERFORMANCE: Execution of an action or to accomplish or to effect.[email protected][email protected]