This study was on impact of nutrition and adequate rest on cognitive behavior among primary school pupils. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected primary schools in Uyo. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents headmasters, teachers, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background of the study
Feeding is a primary event in the life of an infant and young child. It is the focus of attention for parents and other caregivers, and a source of social interaction through verbal and non-verbal communication. The eating experience provides not only sustenance but also an opportunity for learning. It affects not only children’s physical growth and health but also their psychosocial and emotional development. The feeding relationship is affected by culture, health status and temperament. Cognitive and emotional dysfunctions are an increasing burden in our society. The exact factors and underlying mechanisms precipitating these disorders have not yet been elucidated. Next to our genetic makeup, the interplay between specific environmental challenges occurring during well-defined developmental periods seems to play an important role. Interestingly, such brain dysfunction most often co-occurs with metabolic disorders (e.g., obesity) and/or poor dietary habits; obesity and poor diet can lead to negative health implications including cognitive and mood dysfunctions, suggesting a strong interaction between these elements. Obesity is a global phenomenon, with around 38% of adults and 18% of children and adolescents worldwide classified as either overweight or obese. Even in the absence of obesity, poor diet is commonplace, with, for instance, many eating foods that are highly processed and lacking in important polyphenols and anti-oxidants or that contain well-below the recommended levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In this review, we will discuss the extent of, and mechanisms for, diet’s influence on mood and cognition during different stages of life, with a focus on microglial activation, glucocorticoids and endocannabinoids (eCBs).
Cognition represents a complex set of higher mental functions subserved by the brain, and includes attention, memory, thinking, learning, and perception (Bhatnagar and Taneja, 2001). Cognitive development in pre-schoolers is predictive of later school achievement (Tramontana et al., 1988; Clark et al., 2010; Engle, 2010). As Ross and Mirowsky (1999) state: “Schooling builds human capital – skills, abilities, and resources which ultimately shapes health and well-being.” Indeed, more education has been linked to better jobs, higher income, higher socio-economic status, better health care access and housing, better lifestyle, nutrition, and physical activity (Florence et al., 2008), which are all well-known health determinants. Education increases an individual’s sense of personal control and self-esteem; these factors have also been shown to influence better health behavior (Ross and Mirowsky, 1999; Logi Kristjánsson et al., 2010). Academic achievement is important for future personal health, and is therefore a significant concern for public health.
Statement of the problem
Mild and transient feeding problems occur in 25% to 35% of young children while severe and chronic feeding problems occur in 1% to 2%. Common conditions include overeating, poor eating, feeding behaviour problems and unusual or unhealthy food choices. Although medical disorders and inappropriate food selection can result in feeding problems, these conditions are often associated with early problems in parent-child feeding experiences. Problems with self-regulation, attachment, temperament and the development of autonomy can contribute. A poor attachment may result from substance abuse or mental illness in the caregiver, developmental delay or a medical condition in the child, and parent-child personality/temperament conflict
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the relationship between nutrition and cognitive behavior among primary school pupils
- To ascertain whether nutrition can affect primary school pupil academic performance
- To ascertain the psychological effect of nutrition on primary school pupil cognitive behavior
The following have been put forward for testing
H0: there is no relationship between nutrition and cognitive behavior among primary school pupils
H1: there is relationship between nutrition and cognitive behavior among primary school pupils.
H0: nutrition cannot affect primary school pupil academic performance
H1: nutrition can affect primary school pupil academic performance
Significance of the study
The study will be very significant to students, ministry of education, ministry of health and the parents. The study will give a clear insight on the impact of nutrition and adequate rest on cognitive behavior among pupils. The study will also serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on the related topic
Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study covers impact of nutrition and adequate rest on cognitive behavior among primary school pupils. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Nutrition: Nutrition is the science that interprets the nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion
Cognitive behavior: Cognitive behavioral therapy is a psycho-social intervention that aims to improve mental health. CBT focuses on challenging and changing unhelpful cognitive distortions and behaviors, improving emotional regulation, and the development of personal coping strategies that target solving current problems