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Impact Of School Libraries On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students A Case Study Of Some Selected Secondary Schools In Abia State

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –       –        –        –        i

Declaration          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Certification        –        –        –        –        –        –       –        –       –        iii

Dedication           –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement        –        –        –        –        –        –       –        –        v

Table of content            –        –        –        –        –        –       –       –        –        vii

List of tables        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        x

Abstract     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –       –        –        xi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the study   –        –        –        –       –       –        –        1

1.2. Statement of problem   –    –        –        –        –       –       –        –        4

1.3. Objectives of the study      –        –        –        –        –       –        –        5

1.4. Research questions  –        –        –        –        –         –       –        –        6

1.5. Research Hypothesis         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.6. Significance of the study   –        –        –        –        –       –        –        7

1.7. Scope of the study   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        8

1.8. Operational definition of terms    –        –        –        –         –       –        8

1.9. Organization of the Study  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.   Introduction          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        11

2.2.   Conceptual Literature                –        –        –        –        —                 11

2.2.1. Library        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        11

2.2.2. Academic Performance   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        12

2.2.3. Overview of Nigeria Secondary School       –        –        –        –        14

2.2.4. Strategies to Improve social studies Performance in Secondary

Schools       –        –        —       –        –        –        –        —       –        16

2.3.    Reviews of Empirical Studies  –        –        –        –        –        –        17

2.3.1. Dr. M. Ayaz, Nasir Ali, Abdul Basit Khan, Rooh Ullah and Mati Ullah

(2017); Impact of School library on Students’ Academic Achievement

at Secondary School Level in Southern Districts of Khyber

Pakhtunkhwa        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        17

2.3.1. Oladebinu Tokunbo Olufemi1, Amos Adekunle Adediran and

Dr. W.O. Oyediran (2018); Factors Affecting Students’ Academic

Performance in Colleges of Education in Southwest, Nigeria              19

2.3.2. Tata Umar Sa’ad and Rabiu Usman (2014); the Causes of

Poor Performance in English Language among Senior Secondary

School Students in Dutse Metropolis of Jigawa State, Nigeria            20

2.3.3. Bakwai, B.  & Yusuf, A.  (2016); School-based management

committee strategies and infrastructural development in Zamfara

state basic schools –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        21

2.3.4. Dr. Comfort Olufunke Akomolafe and Dr. Veronica Olubunmi

Adesua (2016); The Impact of Physical Facilities on Students’

Level of Motivation and Academic Performance in Senior

Secondary Schools in South West Nigeria   –        –        –        –        22

2.4.   Theoretical Review         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        22

2.4.1. Theory of E.l.L Thorndike       –        –        –        –        –        –        23

2.4.2. The Theory of B. F. Skinner    –        –        –        –        –        –        25

2.4.3. Learning theory in Gestalt psychology-        –        –        –        –        26

2.4.4. Locke’s Tabula Rasa      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        27

2.4.5. Behaviorist Theory         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        28

2.5. Theoretical Framework               –        –        –        –        –        –        29

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1.   Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

3.2.   Research Design –  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

3.3.   Population of the Study  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.4.   Sampling Size       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.5.   Sampling Technique       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.6.   Instrument for Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.7.   Method of Data Collection        –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.8.   Validity/Reliability of Instrument        –        –        –        –        –        34

3.8.1. Reliability test       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        34

3.9.    Method of Data Analysis         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        36

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1.   Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

4.2.   Data Presentation/Analysis        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

4.3.    Testing of Hypothesis     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        45

4.4.   Discussion of Findings    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        48

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1.   Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        51

5.2.   Summary     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        51

5.3.   Conclusion  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        52

5.4.   Recommendations –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        53

5.5.   Limitations to the Study            –        –        –        –        –        –        54

5.6.   Suggestions for Further Studies          –        –        –        –        –        54

 

REFERENCES   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        55

 

APPENDIX         –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Sex of Respondents     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

Table 2 Category of Respondents       –        –        –        –                  –        38

Table 3 Age distribution of Respondents     –        –        –        –        –        38

Table 4 Marital status of respondents           –        –        –        –        –        39

Table 5 Education Attainment of Respondents      –        –        –        –        39

Table 6: Respondents view on whether Students love to acquire knowledge and

attend classes         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        40

Table 7: Level of academic performance of students in the school      –        41

Table 8: Respondents views on whether the school possess library facilities 42

Table 9: Respondents views on whether they visit the library    –        –        42

Table 10: Respondents views on whether Students/teachers perform/understand

better when they acquire more knowledge by making use of the

library     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        43

Table 11: type of equipment the library possess     –        –        –        –        44

Table 12: Test of Hypothesis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        46

 

 

ABSTRACT

This research work empirically explored the impact of school libraries on academic performance of secondary school students. The objectives of the study were to ascertain the level of students’ academic performance in Nigeria secondary school,s examine the influence of school library utilization on learning of secondary schools students in Nigeria, determine measures for preventing low academic performance in secondary schools of Nigeria. The scope of the study is all secondary schools of Abia state making use of student and staff of some selected secondary schools, the classical learning theory was used as a framework. The research design used for this study is survey, the population targeted for this study consists of all secondary schools in Nigeria, a total of 50 schools was used as sample size consisting of 300 questionnaires administered to students and staffs and cluster sampling technique was applied. Instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. Data collected were collected from primary sources. From the analysis of the data, the findings shows the level of students’ academic performance in Nigeria schools is high, The availability of school library help to improve student academic performance, The problem of Low academic performance can be solved making use school libraries. Following the findings, it was recommended that every secondary school should ensure that library facility is provided as this will improve on the student, school libraries should be well equipped with internet access. The study concludes that the use of instructional materials when teaching in junior secondary schools should be embraced as this will help raise the level of comprehension.

Keyword: library, academic performance, secondary school, educational system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the Study

The importance of school libraries in promoting students’ academic performance is giving. Oxford dictionary described a library it is a room or building in which all the learning materials such as books, tape, newspapers etc. are available for public in order to study, learn and borrow it. Library is the most important and essential part in education process. Availability of library facility in school makes the teaching learning process more effective and advanced.

Student’s perception in learning should be changed through library facilities. To develop or maintain one’s specific skills, the sub skills built through personal learning from the library should become the building blocks for more meaningful learning. In Nigeria, provision of school libraries have been a part of education for years. According to National Educational Policy (NEP) every Ministry state requires to make available finances to the institution for establishment of libraries in all educational institution and also to prepare and train librarians and library assistant. School library play pivotal role in any educational system and give supports and guidance to the readers.

However it is disheartening to note that the poor performance of students in secondary schools is still persistent. Libraries are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning to promote teachers efficiency and improve students’ performance. Fowowo in (1988) stated that school library should be well equipped and accessible to all students and teachers

Education is one of the most important aspect of human life especially in this modern era where educational qualification obtained is inquired of when been considered for a job by employers. The educational system of Nigeria have been in crisis for many years ranging from the problem of presence of unqualified teachers in the educational system to the problem of lack of infrastructural facilities, negative attitude of students towards learning is also a major cause.  Though (2011) states that some students buys book but do not make effective use of the book. Ahmed (2003) confirmed that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, teaching and learning takes place under a most unconducive environment without access to essential materials.

Government of Nigeria have tried in various ways to improve the quality of education in the country by introducing various policies such as the Nigeria “National Policy on Education” published in 1997, revised in 1981 and 1990. The policy had been revised to ensure that the educational sector is supportive of government development goals. Recent initiatives have also been taken by the government in the funding of education. The FGN/ODA Nigeria Community Education Programmes introduced in 1996. One of the objective of this initiatives are to restructure educational funding arrangement. Alternative sources of funding education have been explored. In 1995 the government established the Education Tax Fund.

Another notable change has been the effort to update the curriculum, a committee for the improvement of the curriculum was also established. The overall responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Education is to ensure quality within the system, to encourage and initiate innovations and to ensure the schools maintain minimum standards of acceptable educational practice. The National Commission for Colleges of Education was established in 1990 to lay down minimum standards for all programmes of teacher education.

In Nigeria, many secondary schools have been deficient in their operations and the overall effectiveness due to problems of inadequate facilities. This problem is pertinent to both the public and private educational institutions. While the public educational sector is faced with the problem of mismanagement, you find several private schools below standard right from the primary to the tertiary.

 

1.2. Statement of the Research Problem

Every country endeavours to provide quality education for its people, the future of such nation depends largely on it. The educational system of Nigeria is still faced with a lot of problems. Some of the problems include student learning skills, teachers’ quality, learning infrastructure among others. The educational sector is responsible for performing several vital works in any economy. The various experts of various fields have to pass through the educational system to become one.

Academic successes is an essential factor in educational achievement. Conceptual learning, principles and understanding are not easy to master by student and this makes students less motivated and less interested to learn. This weakness causes student to perform poorly. It is discouraging to note that Nigeria students still perform poorly in their academics. This is so much so in secondary schools of the country. Although, for some time now it appears government have tried various methods in resolving the issue of low academic performance in secondary schools.

Lack of provision of fully equipped school libraries and application of effective teaching methodology is one of the major reasons of low academic performance in secondary schools in Nigeria. In Nigeria, most secondary school lack fully equipped libraries while some don’t have at all. These is pertinent to private schools where substandard school environment is mostly experienced.

It is against this background that the researcher considered the impact of school libraries on academic performance of secondary school students.

 

1.3. Objectives of the study

The aim of this study was to access the impact of school libraries on academic performance of secondary school students. The specific objectives are to:

  1. ascertain the level of students’ academic performance in Nigeria secondary schools.
  2. examine the influence of school library utilization on learning of secondary schools students in Nigeria.
  3. determine measures for preventing low academic performance in secondary schools of Nigeria.

 

1.4. Research Questions

This study will be guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the level of students’ academic performance in Nigeria secondary schools?
  2. What is the impact of school library utilization on learning of secondary schools students in Nigeria?
  3. What are the measures for preventing low academic performance in secondary schools of Nigeria?

 

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The study is guided by the following hypothesis:

H0:     There is no significant relationship between school libraries and academic performance of Nigeria secondary school students.

 

1.6. Significance of the Study

The critical nature of academic successes in particular and the educational sector in general to the success or growth of any economy is given, this is because academic achievements prepares students to grow up as active, responsible and reflective members of the society. Empirically, this study is carried out to investigate the impact of school libraries on academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria so as to ameliorate the problems associated with it and proffer solutions. This study will be important to the academic sector of the nation, as it will help guide the boards in charge of school management on how it can operate and how it should operate.  It will teach it the importance of school libraries to the country.

This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in educational sector.  It is hoped that the exploration of secondary schools will provide a broad view of the operations of the educational system to investors and government. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role of school libraries in academic successes. This study will be of benefit to;

The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.

Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the educational sector. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the sector.

Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.

This study at the end will enlighten the board of educational sector on the implication of school libraries.

 

1.7. Scope of the Study

This study is intended to investigate the impact of school libraries on academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria, using some selected secondary schools in Abia state.

 

1.8. Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined operationally.

  • Library: is a room or building in which all the learning materials such as books, tape, newspapers etc. are available for public in order to study, learn and borrow it.
  • Secondary school: a school intermediate between elementary school and college usually offering general, technical, vocational or college preparatory courses.
  • Academic performance: is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution attained their short or long-term educational goals.
  • Academic achievement: ability to attain success in studies.

 

1.9. Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research  hypotheses,  objectives  of  the study, the  significance  of  the  study,   the scope  and  limitations  of  the  study  and  finally the  organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument.  Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

The chapter deals with literature review on the concept of the impact of school libraries on academic performance of secondary school students. This involves various definitions of libraries, academic performance, causes of low academic performance, overview of Nigeria secondary schools, strategies to deal low academic performance. The review of empirical studies, theoretical review, theoretical framework and summary of literature review.

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