Download full Chapter 1-5 Project topic and material For Final Year student in Mass communication titled, The Impact Of Television Advertisement Of ‘Always’ On Consumers Choice Of Sanitary Towel. View table of contents, abstract and chapter one below.


Mass communication project Topic Chapter 1-5 titled, The Impact Of Television Advertisement Of ‘Always’ On Consumers Choice Of Sanitary Towel.


CONTENTS                                                                      PAGES

TITLE PAGE                                                                             i

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                     ii

DEDICATION                                                                           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                            iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                             v

ABSTRACT                                                                              viii



1.0   INTRODUCTION                                                               1

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY                                       4

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM                                     6

1.3   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY                                            7

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                                       8

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTION                                                   9

1.6           SCOPE OF THE STUDY                                                     9

1.7   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY                                            10

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS                                                   11



LITERATURE REVIEW                                                             13

2.0 INTRODUCTION                                                                 13

2.1 ADVERTISING AND THE MARKETING MIX.                      23

2.2 ADVERTISING AND CONSUMERS CHOICE                       25


2.4 PURPOSE OF ADVERTISING                                             27

2.5 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW.                              30


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                  32

INTRODUCTION                                                                       32

3.1POPULATION OF THE STUDY                                             32

3.2 SAMPLE                                                                             33

3.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE                                                    33

3.4 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION                            35

3.5   METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS                                         36

3.6 VALIDITY AND RELIABILIT                                                 37


DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                                    38

4.1DATA PRESENTATION                                                                38

4.2 DATA ANALYSIS (RESEARCH QUESTION)                         45



5.1 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS                                           48

5.2 CONCLUSION                                                                    48

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS                                                           49

5.4 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES                            50

REFERENCES                                                                         51

APPENDIX A                                                                            53

QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                     54



This research is on the impact of Television advertisement of Always on consumers choice of sanitary towel (A study of federal polytechnic Oko). This study is designed to find out how the consumers of this product react to the television advertisement of ‘Always’ whether it affects their choice of sanitary towel.

The presumption of the research was that television advertisement affects this consumers choice of sanitary towel greatly because of its uniqueness of combing sight and sound as well as demonstration. But the researcher base was on the staff  and students of federal polytechnic Oko Orumba North L.G.A. the intention was to find out what extent does television advertisement influences them to change their buying decision, it has been observed that students have time to watch television adverts and filter media message to the best of their knowledge. Therefore, this study found out whether they are unfounded or bases on facts.




Advertising can be defined as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, gods and services by an indentified sponsor.

Television Advertisement can be defined as the demonstration of products on usual form. It is a known fact that sanitary towel products are numerous and at a point in time it will be of interest to the public to know the impact of television Advertisement especially “Always” which is daily advertised on NTA television. This study gives account of how consumers of “Always” react after watching the advert of “Always”.

Television Advertisement permits our ladily lives. It has come to be credited by most people as being the savior of certain companies at the state time, the execution of others sometimes, people view it positively and other times, they curse it, some of it are said to inform, persuade or entertain while deceive or insult. These characteristics make it incumbent on any marketer wishing to sell goods to properly create and maintain a market product. A product can be ideally projected and yet fail to achieve desired success by not winning customers acceptance for the following reasons:

  1. When the product cannot be obtained conveniently
  2. When the potential customers are not acquainted with the benefit of the product.

iii. When the marketers could not convince the customers that their need for the product.

A marketer in this situation tries to find some means of communicating effectively with potential customers for the dual purpose of acquainting them  with the characteristics possessed by the product and informing them as the subject of advertising which is most accessible means employed by marketers to present promotional messages.

According to American impact Association. “Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor”.

It is in this view that an attempt is being made to ascertain properly the impact advertising plays on the consumers choice of sanitary towel with special reference to “Always”.

Television is the fastest growing mass medium. However, the most important of all is the distinct advantage that television can convey as both eyes and ears. The impact is enormous as a matter of fact, in winker et al in their book advertising uphold their views in their own words.

As significant advert medium Television is about Forty five years old, but it has proven itself capable of reaching and holding large audience comprising simultaneously many different demographic groups winker et al in a book captioned “marketing and the function of Advertising with” it ported that commercial television became a powerful and intense medium immediately and developed into pre-eminent advertising medium for many classes of fast moving packaged goods.

He further states that:

Television provides the most significant way in which at one or time. A product stormy can be presented in the most drastic way or television with the aid of live performance and appropriate settings. It has a fat acting medium specifically for a new product or an already well known products.

The impact of television adverts is further made clear and manifest in the role it has assumed in some other areas politics and election.

Precisely, with television, you have at your command both sight and sound, with bonus of movement. These qualities make television very powerful. The development of commercial television in 1955 served as an ample opportunity in Britain for the first time: the ability to go right into various homes of their prospect consumers and demonstrate their products with all the  persuasive of door to door sale man.

Therefore, the reaction of the audience towards television advertisement is the frame work of the project.


“Sanitary napkins is a relatively new business for P & a, but it already is an important business, and future is bright” .Larry Dare of the operation committee, June 1990. “Always” began in the test market in Minneapolis, Minnesota in January,1983 at that time 3pads types were introduced maxi pads, mini pads, and pant liners. The ongoing market share objective was 25% share; year 1 was 18.9%.

The target audience was women 12-49. Test market results indicated Always could achieve a 22.5% going share nationally.

Competition at the time was intense Johnson and John was the market leader. Competitive response included new products line extensions, product improvements and heavy competitive promotional spending. “Always “also spentvery heavily at the time consumer awareness of the product was low; consumer who tied “Always” liked it, except  for the size of the pad.

By 1984, “Always” was in national distribution at the time there were 4pads types; maxi pads, mini pads, then mini pads and pant liners. National expansion results were mixed: market share was 14.8% is the 16% objective. Key issues included in market distribution and out of shock problems to meet the original 22.5% objectives. Additionally, awareness among pad using women was 82% compared to test market at 80%. Television advertising started 7/2/84 and sample were mailed including a coupon.

“Always’’ pricing objective was to maintain an average retail price equal to key competitors this was the same as the test market strategy to introduce “Always” at partly carload pricing  (per cartons & per pads) vs j && stay free care free brands. At the time Always was the only brand with both a regular and attain maxi pad.

In 1986, Always plus was introduced into the U.S presenting the first line of feminine hygiene pads with panty protectors on the side, referred to as ‘wings’ the wings wrap around the panty to offer additional protection on the side were leakage is most often likely to occur.

In 1991, ‘Always’ ultra was introduced onto the U.S market the ultra pad in corporate a novel super sober technology for feminine hygiene protection. In Europe, the general expansion of the full ‘Always’ product line, including ‘Always’ ultra and pant liners also began.

‘Always’ was available throughout Europe and a number in the middle East.


The right marketing mix is applied in any product by ensuring that wastage (cost) is reduced and optional sales volume achieved. Besides, the role of advertising which is a key to promotional strategy as far as consumers goods are concerned must be a accomplished in the case of ‘Always’ in federal polytechnic Oko.

It is quite understandable that consumers have absolute control over what products or services to show interest in but most times consumers tend to be influenced by advertisements. It is therefore pertinent to find out the variables that determine why a particular product or service gain more patronage than others in the same category and sometimes serving the same purpose.

As a result, many newly manufacturing companies cannot afford the cost of advertisement or electronic media and this result to only local means of letting people know about their goods.


This project is geared towards identifying it television advertisements have any impact on consumers choice of sanitary towel with special reference/ emphasis on “Always” at federal polytechnic Oko.

The objectives of this study therefore include:

1.To determine the impact of television advertisement on the consumers choice of sanitary towel in federal polytechnic Oko.

  1. The impact of television in dissemination of information on the sale of ‘Always’
  2. To ascertain other sources of information available to the consumer.
  3. To find out other factors that may influence consumers choice.


Basically, this research would be useful considering the benefits derivable from this study such benefit are, knowledge acquired by the researcher, relevant information to advertisers of different products which would guide them in their management decision making and on the field of mass communication in which advertising is an integral part.

However, the significance of television adverts in developing economy life, ours cannot be emphasized. Hence advertising stimulates through and actions on enterprise society and so help to monitor productive efforts by management labour.



The study which aimed at finding out the impact of television advert on consumers choice of sanitary towel with special emphasis on ‘Always’ in federal polytechnic Oko would be wise if the following pertinent questions are asked;

  1. What determines the impact of television advertisement on the consumers choice of sanitary towel in federal polytechnic Oko?
  2. What is the impact of television in dissemination of information on the sale of ‘Always’?

iii. What ascertains other sources of information available to the consumer?

  1. What helps in finding out factors that may influence consumers choice?


Due to the fact that sanitary towel have numerous products, this study is limited only on ‘Always’.

This study looked into the impact created of consumers which has increased hither to rich patronage of ‘Always’

Therefore, whatever information gathered is to be based on the response of the consumers on what the researcher observed from them.


        Despite the fact that the researcher employed all human and material efforts to see that the study is successful, yet there were constraints. The variables are so difficult to determine and qualify- one cannot easily quantify the impact of television advert just like tangible things which can be easily determined and quantify. It is surprising to observe that some people both literate and illiterate are yet to fully understand the real purpose of a research, while some bluntly refused to accept the questionnaire distributed to them some claimed that they do not have time to provide the necessary information required from them, some even requested for money before they can accept questionnaire.

Some respondents made among entries thereby making it difficult for the researcher to gather reliable information on the topic under study.

No doubt, all these made the research come a little bit short of what was intended earlier on as the case maybe, the study has provided as basis of which educated judgment can operate.

Finally, the researchers coming after are hereby adviced to start from where this work ended.


ADVERTISER: This refers to one who spend money for advertisement. He advertises his products, goods and services.

CONSUMER:      This refers to one who buys  a product for use.

APPEAL:           The motive to create interest for a particular product or service.

CHIOCE:           The ability of a consumer to think and conclude to patronize a product.

BRAND LOYALTY:  The ability of a consumer to stick to a     particular brand of product in the face of alternatives.

BRAND:            It is the identifying mark of any product.

TELEVISION:   The process of transmitting a view of events, adverts, plays etc while these are taking place or films or tapes on which records have been made.

ADVERTISING: It is any paid form of non-personal an identified sponsor.

IMPACT:           The degree to which media message affect the behavior of the audience.

PERSUASION:  Getting somebody to do what one wants by pleading or urging.




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