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Implications of examination malpractice in national development (A case of Kano state).



1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study







3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis



4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation




This study was on Implications of examination malpractice in national development:(A case of kano state).  The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in kano state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

Chapter one


1.1Background of the study

The issue of national development has been a matter of serious concern to both government and individuals alike. National development has equally been tackled through different approaches. The question has been, how will Nigeria attain the desired growth and development? Against this backdrop, Education occupies a prime position and interest. Similarly, the National Policy on Education (2004), clearly stated that education in Nigeria is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. It has also been seriously contended that no nation can rise beyond her educational system. This means that the level and quality of education in any society determines the level and quality of development of that society (Onwe, Opa and Ugadu 2013).

Education could be formal or informal. Formal education occurs in a structured environment whose explicit purpose is teaching of students. Usually, formal education takes place in a school environment with classrooms of multiple students learning together with a trained, certified teacher of the subject. Whilst informal learning occurs in a variety of places, such as out of school time, in youth programmes at community centres and even village squares. Informal learning does not follow a specified curriculum and may originate accidentally, sporadically, in association with certain occasions, from changing practical requirements. It is not necessarily planned to be pedagogically conscious, systematic and according to subjects, but rather unconsciously incidental, holistically problem oriented, and related to situation management and fitness for life. In the traditional African educational system, teaching and learning were basically practical. The students learned orally and through close observation of their master. In fact it was through imitation, no issuance of certificate to prove completion of course of study since the society was interested in skill acquisition and practical demonstration of the arts learned. Definitely, there was no need for certification, since education was viewed as a means to an end and not an end in itself (Akaranga & Ongong, 2013). The western knowledge acquisition system or formal education is measured on certificates. Yet, certificate is not a full proof of knowledge retention. Before certificate is awarded, the students have to be assessed or examined in the field they have been trained. Nnam & Inah (2015) notes that examination is a yardstick against which students or candidates’ competence and progress are formally measured and appraised in the education sector. According to Emaikwu (2012), examination as part of evaluation in education is aimed at determining a learner’s level of skill acquisition or intellectual competence and understanding after a given training. Evaluation usually enables the teacher to be effectively ready for further teaching as this forms a feedback. George & Ukpong (2013) opines that examination is the most common tool around which the entire system of education revolves, it is the instrument used to decide who is permitted to move to the next academiclevel. Malik & Shah (1998) cited in Akaranga & Ongong (2013) observed that examination is not only a process of assessing the progress of students but, it also motivates and helps them to know their academic strengths and weaknesses apart from providing teachers with opportunities to try new methods of teaching. But when examination is not properly conducted, the expected feedback may not result. Hence, the result of such evaluation leads to wrong decision and judgement which affect the teacher, the learner, the entire education industry, as well as the society (Ojonemi et al., 2013). Whenever there is examination irregularity or malpractice, the validity and resulting outcome is questionable.

The common belief on certificates as the only yardstick to measure ones qualification has led many Nigerians into buying educational certificates to prove their academic worth. Examination malpractice in Nigeria is as old as the country herself. According to (Anzene, 2014; Uzoigwe; Onuka & Amoo), examination malpractice was first reported in Nigeria in the year 1914, when the question papers of the Senior Cambridge Local Examinations were reportedly seen by candidates before the scheduled date of the examination. The Examination Malpractice Act (1999) explains examination malpractice as any act of omission or commission by a person who in anticipation of, before, during or after any examination fraudulently secure any unfair advantage for himself or any other person in such a manner that contravenes the rules and regulations to the extent of undermining the validity, reliability, authenticity of the examination and ultimately the integrity of the certificates issued. Again, examination malpractice is commonly defined as a deliberate wrong doing contrary to official examination rules designed to place a candidate at an unfair advantage or disadvantage, (Wilayat, 2009 quoted in Akaranga & Ongong, 2013). Alutu & Aluede ( 2006) cited in Jimoh (2009) remarked that examination malpractice is any irregular behaviour exhibited by a candidate or anybody charged with the conduct of examination before, during or after the examination that contravenes the rules and regulations governing such examination. Onuka & Amusan (2008) cited in Onuka & Durowoju (2013) defined examination malpractice as any dishonest or unauthorized action or deed committed by a student on his own or in collaboration with others like fellow students, guardians, parents, teachers, head teacher, examination officials, supervisors, invigilators, security officers and anybody or group of people before, during or after examination in order to obtain undeserved marks or grades

Statement of the problem

From all the definitions, it is clear that examination malpractice tends to confer undue advantage or undeserved grade to the perpetrators of the act. Again, it may be committed by not only the candidates but also by other bodies charged with the responsibilities of examination management. Undoubtedly, examination malpractice has been a social problem for decades, but the rate and manner it is perpetrated nowadays calls for serious concern. The rate of this crime has become so widespread that there is virtually no examination anywhere at all levels and outside the formal school system that there is no one form of illegal practice or another, (Nnam & Inah, 2015; Ojonemi et al., 2013). Examination malpractices are common everywhere and every examination season witnesses the emergence of new and ingenious ways of cheating, (Nnam &Inah, 2015; Anzene, 2014; Ojonemi et al., 2013; Jimoh, 2009

Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the relationship between examination malpractice and national development
  2. Factors responsible for examination malpractice
  3. To ascertain the effect of examination malpractice on national development

Research hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0:   there is no relationship between examination malpractice and national development.

H1: there is relationship between examination malpractice and national development.

H02: there are no Factors responsible for examination malpractice.

H2: there are Factors responsible for examination malpractice

 Significance of the study

It was hoped that the findings of the study would generate information which policy makers and examining bodies could use to correlate with the already existing body of knowledge to curb Examination Malpractices. It would also help build confidence in our education system by producing graduates of substance who will in turn contribute effectively to the economic development of our country.


Scope and limitation of the study

The scope of the study covers Implications of examination malpractice in national development (A case of Kano state). . The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities



The terms used in this study have the following meanings:-

Anomie Lack of purpose, identity or ethical values in a society. It also means rootlessness (Collins Concise Dictionary, 1978).


Decadence A process, condition or period of decline, deterioration or decay as in morals. (Collins Concise Dictionary, 1978)

Examination Malpractice An illegal act done by student, teacher, invigilator, supervisor, school administrator, parent or any public officer, before, during and after examinations in order for the pupil to be awarded undeserved marks. (Chapi, 2011)

Expedient Suited to the circumstances; convenient; based on what is of use or advantage rather than what is right or just; self-interest. (Collins Concise Dictionary, 1978)

Managing To direct or control the use of something; bringing something under control, to handle something efficiently.

Mercenaries People involved in examination malpractices for monetary gains.


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