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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     RADIO PROGRAMMES

At the beginning of the 21st century, a great deal of attention has been focused on challenging new information technologies, such as the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). However, what is often forgotten amidst the excitement is that only tiny percentage of the world actually uses such communication tools (Duyile A, 2010).

In contrast, the vast majority of people around the globe have access to radio, making it the most effective means of supplying news and information to a diverse audience. Unless the information is provided in an interesting, accurate and entertaining way, audiences will tune out.

Radio is therefore defined as a device that uses electro-magnetic waves, which passes through the air. Radio can be used without domestic electro power supply.

According to owuamalam (2006), the radio concept includes the transmission of sound through electrical waves. Radio is the most popular mass medium, even in the rural areas this is because they are very cheep to buy and maintain.

Radio program (programmes) on the other hand is a segment of content intended for broadcast on radio. It may be a one __ time production or part of a periodically recurring series.

Radio programming is the broadcast programming of a radio format or content that is organized for commercial broadcasting radio station.

Radio and television are based on three major categories. Radio broadcasting ever since its birth has kept growing in terms of its programmes, policies and target areas in order to meet the requirements of its listener and changing demand of the time.

1.1     PURPOSES OF RADIO PROGRAMMES

Making a radio programme is a voyage of discovery.

There is always something new to learn, some different techniques to try, some unexpected turn of events to explore and there is always the fascinating relationship between the programme, and its listener (Duyile A, 2005).

This is so, whether the programme is primary for entertainment (a pop _ music show for example) or whether it is there to inform and explain (news and current affairs) to the listeners.

1.2     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF RADIO PROGRAMMES

  1. Encourage and inspire a positive use of radio.
  2. Encourage empowerment and the politics of liberation and discourage protectionism, and the.

Politics of resentment

  1. Creating awareness of research findings.
  2. Translating into user language.
  3. Linking government to community on different issues.

1.3     FORMS OF RADIO PROGRAMMES

  1. Public Radio: public radio is represented by the BBC, which exist to promote ‘high’ culture and a national identity.
  2. Commercial Radio: Commercial radio exists to create an audience to be sold to advertisers.

1.4     CLASSIFCATION OF RADIO PROGRAMMES

Radio programmes can be classified on the basis of various criteria. However, the broad classification of programmes is made up of the following basis:

  1. Aims of the programmes
  2. Audiences of programmes
  3. Formats of the Programmes
  • AIMS OF THE PROGRAMMES

Under this approach, programmes are classified in accordance with the overall aims conceived by the planner. This classification comprises entertainment programme, information, educative programme or special purpose.

  • AUDIENCES OF THE PROGRAMMES

Radio programmes can be classified into various kinds in terms of targeted audience they address. Children, women, youth, student programmes and programmes for senior citizens and rural listeners etc.

  • FORMAT OF THE PROGRAMMES

A common and established classification of radio programme is to categorize them in terms of various formats, such as drama, talk, discussions etc.

 

1.5     TYPE OF RADIO PROGRAMMES

There are various type of radio programmes which are designed to inform, educate and entertain.

Materials and personnel like sound, music, producers, directors, presenters and talents are used to

Produce programmes for daily consumption of the audience. For everyday, television and

Programming, the following programmes should be in spot light.

  1. Educational programmes
  2. Entertainment programmes
  3. News and current affair Programmes
  4. Interviews and talkshows
  5. Commercial programmes
  6. Documentary programmes
  7. Children’s programme etc

1.6     GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE RADIO

PROGRAMME DICSSION

Produncing a good radio programme may seem like a relatively simple task, but in reality, it requires

A great deal of thought and effort to provide consumers with something they will both speed the time

Listen to and remember (Eastman, S. T & Ferguson, D. A 2006)

Guidelines for effective radio programme production include the following:

  1. WHAT IS THE PROGRAMME OBJECTIVE?

It may seem an odd, even a ridiculous question to ask yourself: What is my programme for? But this

Seemingly obvious question is useful, because it forces you to focus and focused on exactly what

You are trying to do.

Making a Radio programme often involves several people. There might be an editor, producer(s),

Writer (s), or reporter (s) production assistant etc and all those who have become involved with the

Programme through being interview or consulted.

This question is a simple question that can help you to re _ focus and make decisions about what is

Right for the programme you want to make. Radio campaign and even do many things, for example,

It can inform, educate, entertain, campaign and even do all these things within the same programme.

But all you need to do is to make sure it has a primary focus that is giving your listeners the

Information they need to make an informed choice as consumers.

  1. WHO ARE THE PROGRAMME PROSPECTS

Again, this may seem like a question with an obvious answer. The programme is for the listeners of course. But who are the listener? Listeners are the audiences that derive form information conveyed on radio.

Factors to keep in mind are the listeners you can, will attract, will depend on what times of the dayyour programme is broadcast, and what day of the week it is broadcasted. If you have access to any audience research, this will help tell you who your potential audience is, in terms of age, sex, employment level and education. If you broadcast a particular type of item, you will attract a particular type of listener.

Regardless of who is listening, you must aim to do the following:

  1. Convince your listeners that you are on their side, and interested in what concerns them.
  2. Encourage them to feel part of the programme
  • Encourage them to contribute their views and concerns to you
  1. DECIDING IN PRGRAMME FORMAT AND APPROACH

If you are presenting a proposal for a programme or series to radio commissioning edition, it is best to have a dear idea in your mind, which format you want to pursue, and why you have chosen it.

The basic options are:

  1. Magazines programmes: there are programme containing a variety of different items. Rather like a published magazine, the programme will have longer and shorter pieces, and might include a regular round-up of consumer news, an interview, a discussion, and in depth features or a short “filler” item magazine programmes will almost certainly contain a number of pre-recorded elements.
  2. Single Issue Programmes: these are programmes which are devoted to one issue, covered in greater depth than could be achieved within a magazine programme. Nevertheless, it is more difficult to achieve broad audience using this format.

Single issue programmes are usually always “pre-recorded”, although they may allow time for a “live” studio discussion following the recorded section of the show, single issue programmes can covered in thirty minutes, but may warrant a longer time slot-say from 45 minutes to an hour, depending on what is needed to fully address the issue.

  1. MAGAZINES SERIES WITH SINGLE ISSUE SPECIALS

This format provides the best of bothworld, a regular magazines series, with the occasional specials allowing         for more in-depth average of issues deemed be to particularly significant.

  1. PRESENTATION

Whether your programme is a one-off, or an in depth look at a single issue, it will need a presenter, that is someone to explain what’s happening and guide the listener through the subject(s) being dealt with, this person is crucial to the success of your programme.

  1. RUNNING ORDER

That order in which items are broadcast within a magazine programme is called a “running order”. The running order is important, if well chosen, it will give a pleasing, satisfying shape to the programme. It can be better to start with a lighter, shorter place, and then move to smooth heavier or more in- depth a little further into the show. This gives listeners time to get into the programmes and get started.

  1. TONE

The tone of your will by set by the presenter‘s general manner, and the content. How serious do you want your program to sound? Are you happy with some joking, or a banter from presenter(s), or would you prefer them to refrain from anything which might be regarded as flippant?

Your decisions will be based on the first two questions in this guide. What is my programme for, and who it is for?

Your local knowledge will help you decide what your listeners would suits your purposes, and your audience.

  1. BREADTH AND STYLE OF PROGRAMME CONTENT

Try to avoid simply having one studio interview after another. Even on very limited budget to you can take a portable tape record net into the World and record interviewers on location, with interesting background sounds. You can also use music and actually to enliven your programme.

  1. GETTING THE STORIES

How do you find stories for your programme? You can try following up:

  • Consumer affairs publications and press release.
  • Newspaper items
  • Special interest groups and societies.
  • Novelty or humorous items or events
  • New products-effectiveness and safety, etc

Above all, do your research, check facts and then double check them, don’t allow yourself to be misled.

  1. FOLLOW- PROGRAMME ITEMS,

If you cover a story which is developing overtime, always try to go back to it and do a follow-up piece.

  1. ELEMENTS

Whether you are producing a magazine programme or a single-issue programme, the basic content will probably be made up of similar elements, which includes script, interviews, vox pops, features, discussions, special effects, music, news round-ups, etc

PERSONNEL IN RADIO PROGRAMMES:

  1. Announcer
  2. Chief Engineer
  3. Maintenance Engineer
  4. News director
  5. Program director
  6. Promotion Director
  7. On-Air Personalities
  8. Station Manager

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