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ABSTRACT

The fungal disease known as candidiasis, which is primarily prevalent in immune-compromised people and pregnant women, is caused by the species of Candida.

The known causes of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women are Candida species. This study examined the prevalence of candidacies using a sample of single girls and married women enrolled in the study at the St. John health center in Rumuolumeni Rivers state. The specimens were grown on blood agar and seaboard agar, and C aibicans, Tropical C Knusei, Pseudoizo P cals, Paraknusei, and C Stellatoides subcultures were isolated. The level of occurrence and microbiological kinds of candidacies among Single Girls and Married Women Attending SJHCR were tracked. Furthermore, 40% of the study samples had candidiasis infection.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of study

A fungal condition known as candidiasis, which is typically prevalent in immune-compromised people, is also a known cause of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women (Shaheen and Teha, 2006). The most frequent cause of fungal diseases, which can range from mild mucocataneous infections to fatal invasive fungal infections, is Candida species (Jacqueline and Bettina, 2010). The taxonomic classification known as the genus Candida was first used to describe yeast-like organisms that were not thought to have a sexual reproductive life cycle (David et.al, 2011).

Candida albicans causes vaginal candidiasis, also known as Candidal vulvovaginitis or vaginal thrush, which is an infection of the mucous membrane of the vagina. It is most frequently brought on by an overabundance of a Candida-family fungus. They typically coexist in the vagina with bacteria that are usually benign in modest numbers. In a typical situation, the body’s natural defenses and other members of the normal flora keep the Candida yeast in control. For instance, the pH of the vagina is kept between 4.0 and 4.5. (Nyirjesy, 2008). This level of acidity hinders the growth of some vaginal infections. However, both beneficial and harmful yeasts, bacteria, and other organisms in the body would be impacted by physiological changes in the balance of the body system. This would consequently change the vagina’s acidity, bringing it down to pH 5.0-6.5 and allowing pathogenic organisms like Candida to flourish (Akinbiyi et al., 2008). Age, menstrual cycle phase, sexual activity, choice of contraception, pregnancy, the presence of necrotic tissue or foreign substances, and the use of hygiene products or antibiotics can all cause a rise in vaginal pH. (Nyirjesy, 2008).

 

Candida abbacies usually appears as oval yeast like cell that reproduce by budding however in infected areas. Pseudolyphae, which are elongated yeast cells that are still connected to one another, and filamentous hyphare may also be visible. The yeast grows readily at 250°C and 40°C on Sabouraud’s Glucose Agar, and when cultivated at 250°C on Corn Meal Agar, the organism can create numerous distinctive Chlamydospores with thick walls (Van Leeuweuhoed) (2 000) The diameter of candida albicans, which can cause pseudomycellun, ranges from 2.5 to 4.0 wm. It has no sexual characteristics in the body, creates thick walls at a temperature of 2°C in poor patients, and can break ureters when it tests positive for mammalian serum.

candidate speeches The yeast that causes oral candidacies, also known as oral thrush, most frequently affects newborns and is most likely contracted during passage via an infected vagina. It appears to be able to cause disease only because of the absence of their local natural flora (Prescott et al; 2014) Thrush should appear and, if it does, will typically go away on its own as other members of the regular flora are acquired if it has not by the third day of life.

Oral thrush can develop in children or adults due to an endocrine disorder, ceutaninosis (specifically, rib flavin insufficiency as a diabetic consequence), poor oral hygiene, or after using corticosteroids or antipsychotic medications. Oral thrush can also affect bottle-fed newborns, as evidenced by the magnified appearance of my white patches and red, raw areas of mucous manbrance vanities. Vaginal cending is most commonly observed in women with diabetes, in environments devoid of pregnancy, or after extended antibiotic therapy. The prominent symptom is a yellow, milk, veginals discharge yeast cells and pseudo my cell can be found on the mucous membrane and such infections may result in an intense inflammation of the entire ingunal area according to Atlas 201: 13) he state vaginal thrush in pregnant women are susceptible here with production of whish discharge with a pH below 5.2. Alimentary candidacies. Alimentary candidacies may follow essentially any of the predisposing conditions listed for adult oral thrush; however the majority of cases occur as a result of prolonged broad spectrum antibiotics therapy which destoirys a large part of the normal flora of the intestine. The organisms may also cause interse inflammation of the parinal region the region around the arws and may spread to the and thing coetaneous are systemic candidacies infection of the skin by Candida usually occurs in those with metabolic disorders in those whose obesity result in continuously most tools of skin or in persons in whom part of the body are kept moist under surgical dressings. According to Prescott et al (2019, 18) systemic candidacies is exlvecnely but in debilitated person or those receiving immuno suppresure drugs sandida albicans can cause urinary trait infection endocarditis and meningitis chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is also a rare syndrome in which the skin mucous membranes hair and nails become infected, such infections appears to occur in persons with T. cell defects manifested by their inability to respond to Candida certigens, in addition to vaging yeast infections the acid environment of the veginal and the proliferation of normal vaginal bacterial limited its growth when the environment of the vegina changes, situations that change the environment of the birth control pills. Which often change the vaginal pH or taking bread spectrum cutibioties such as tertiary cline which kills the normal vaginal bacteria in addition, patients with Aids of uncontrolled eddiabetes often develop yeast infections.

1.2 Statement of problem

Due to the way the disease manifests itself, including the discomfort it causes, such as itching, which makes people feel quite embarrassed in public, candidiasis has generated a lot of problems in our cultures today. Another issue with this infection is that when it stays long in the body, it will cause the person who is suffering from it to be smelling due to severe discharge, making it difficult for them to remain in a public setting for an extended period of time without feeling very humiliated by this infection.

Analysis gathered from various professional scientists has brought to light the deep concept of candidiasis infection that three out of four pregnant women are liable to the infection in their lifetime. Also researchers will be looking at the problem arising from the incessant re-occurrence of the infection after treatment.

Three out of ten women and unmarried girls are susceptible to developing candidiasis at some point in their lifetime, according to research compiled from a variety of expert specialists. Additionally, experts will examine the issue caused by the infection’s persistent recurrence following therapy.

 

1.3     Aim And Objectives

To determine the prevalence of fugal infection among Singles girls And Married women attending St John health Center, Rumuolumeni state

  1. To determine the prevalence of fungal infection among single and married women of different age group patient
  2. To determine the yeast type
  3. To determine the autimicrobial sensitivity pattern of isolates

 

1.4 Hypothesis Of Study

H0 The infection (candidiasis) is more prevalent in single women than married women

H1   The infection (candidiasis) is more prevalent in married women than in single women

H2   pregnancy is one of the factors that can change the pH or taking broad spectrum antibiotics.

 

1.5     Significance Of Study

The study of this research topic will provide more constructor frame work to formation or creating a way of Eradicating the infection (candidiasis it also help to educate people the cause and consequence of the infection candidacy. It will also help the communities to know the risk of staring thing that makes people to contact the disease, it will also help to provide precaution measure that will help in preventing the infection.

finally this research work will help to reduce the high rate of the disease occurrence and gives an insight into our communities.

 

1.6     Scope Of Study

This research work is limited to only Singles girls And Married women attending single and married women of different a group in hematology laboratory in St John Healthcare Center, Rumuolumeni. The work was carried out with the use the necessary material such as early morning urine, HVS swab samples which was collected from those women vaginal

 

1.7    Limitation of study

In carrying out the research work. It was so stressful for me in area like buying of my material. I used for my practices that very costly I also went to different markets to get what I want then in carrying out my particle it was not easy for me also the money I was ask was not enough for due buying of book s and transporting price that is not steady also I found it very difficult to use St John Healthcare Center, Rumuolumeni library.

 

1.8 Definition Of Terms

  • Candidiasis: this is a fungal infection caused by the growth of a type of yeast called candida, usually Candida albicans
  • Vaginitis: this is a medical terms used for describing various condition that causes infection and inflammation of the vaginal.
  • Vulvovaginitis: this refer to inflammation of both the vaginal and vulva (the external female genitals)
  • Thrush: A contagious disease caused by a fungus, Candida albicans, that occurs most often in infants and children, characterized by small whitish eruptions on the mouth, throat, and tongue, and usually accompanied by fever, colic, and diarrhoea
  • Yeast: this is a fungus that normally lives in the vaginal in small numbers.
  • Lactobacillus: this is a bacterium that exists naturally in the body primarily in the intestine and the vagina which produce fight against foreign organisms.
  • Inflammation: this is a response that occurs when the body’s white blood cells and other substances produces fight against foreign organisms.
  • Bacteria: these are very tiny organism that made up of a single cell.
  • Oestrogen: this is a female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries which helps to control and guide sexual development.
  • Microbial culture: this is a method of multiplying micro-organisms by letting them reproduce in pre-determined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions.

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