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Influence of Class Size and Availability of Resources on Students’ Academic Achievement in Computer Science in Junior Secondary School in Ibadan South West Lga

ABSTRACT

This research work centered on the influence of class size and availability of resources on the academic achievement of students in public junior secondary school in Ibadan South West local government area. This study was aimed at finding how class size and availability of resources has an impact on academic achievement on students. The researcher made effort to review books, journals and other resources relating to the different headings incorporated in the literature review. The study population for this study composed of 80 students in four public secondary schools in Ibadan South West local government area, Oyo state. The instrument used to collect data for this study was questionnaire. The data was analyzed through SPSS computer package. The result obtained indicate that a significant relationship exist between class size and availability of resources and academic achievement.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Research Hypotheses

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Scope of the Study

1.8 Definition of Term

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Theoretical Framework

Concept of Class size and availability of resources

Components of Class size and availability of resources

Concept of Academic achievement

Class size and availability of resources and

Academic achievement

Empirical Studies

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

Population

Sample and Sampling Technique

Validity 0f the Instrument

Pilot Testing

Reliability of the Instrument

Procedure for Data Collection.

Methods of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Analysis

Hypothesis

Summary of Major Findings

Discussion of Finding Summary

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATION

Conclusion

Recommendations

Contributions to Knowledge

REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

The class size and availability of resources, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers, etc are variables that affect students’ academic achievement (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000). Hence, the class size and availability of resources remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic achievement.

The issue of poor academic achievement of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even student themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the class size and availability of resources (Ajao 2001) class size and availability of resources which include instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well-planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic achievement of the students.

Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud, and Turner (2008), quoting Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment (aspect of instructional space), School facilities (accessories) were significantly related to students’ academic achievement in schools. The three researchers, also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students` academic achievement.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002)

Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect student behavior and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student. Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic achievement of students.

Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor class size and availability of resources including problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behavior, and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001; Moore, 2002;

Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement these studies, the present research is to examine the aforementioned areas of class size and availability of resources as it affect students performance in Nigerian schools.

 

1.2  Statement of the Problem

A student faces a lot of problem in the course of his educational pursuit. These problems are multifaceted. The research is concerned with the influence of the class size and availability of resources with special reference to student’s academic attainment and possible solution to the problem. The alarming poor performance in examination is definitely of great concern to the researcher who sees the study as inevitable.

It is noted that students’ performance at junior secondary school level at private and public schools differs due to environmental constraints.

The high levels of students’ academic achievement may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective. However, little is known on the impact of class size and availability of resources on students’ academic achievement in junior secondary school in Ibadan South West Local government area of Oyo State.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of the study:

  1. ascertain the impact of small class size on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo
  2. determine the impact of classroom building on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo
  3. determine the impact of adequate class furniture on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo
  4. ascertain the impact of the availability of resources on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo

1.4  Research Questions

The following questions are raised with regard to this research:

  1. what is the impact of small class size on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State?
  2. what is the impact of classroom building on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State?
  3. what is the impact of the provision of adequate class furniture on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State?
  4. what is the impact of the availability of resources on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State?

 

 

1.5  Research Hypotheses

The following are the research hypotheses:

  1. there is no significant difference in the performances of students taught in a small class size and those in a large class size in Oyo
  2. there is no significant difference in the performances of students taught using instructional resources and those taught without instructional resources in Oyo

 

1.6       Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study would provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in computer science in Junior secondary schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts.

In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic achievement of student in secondary school.

Also, this work would serve as a stepping stone to other researchers, who are looking for better ways to solve the problem of class size and availability of resources and students’ academic achievement in junior secondary school in business study, a case study of selected Junior Secondary schools in Ibadan South West Local Government Area of Oyo State.

 

 

1.7       Scope of the Study

The scope of this work is to cover four selected schools under Ibadan South West Local Government Area.

They are:

  1. Awori College, Ibadan South West
  2. Ajangbadi High School, Ajangbadi
  3. Oyo model college, Ibadan South West.
  4. Ibadan South West Community High School, Ibadan South West

The subjects of this study are junior school.

It is hoped that the findings made in these areas would serve as a useful pointer to what occurs in other areas of the state and in other part of the federation knowing fully well that students encounter different environmental constraint.

 

1.8       Definition of Term

Academy: A school or college for special training.

Student: The word “Student” means any person who is ready to learn and engage in learning activities.

Environment: Environment can be seen as the totality of the natural and artificial (manmade) phenomenon having direct and

Learning: Learning is basically a process of adapting to and improving the environment. What is learned can be measured either by those things that we observe in the behaviour of the individual.

Performance: Is the act of performing a play, concert or some other form of entertainment.

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