1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study is on influence of digital technology on the practice of journalism in Nigeria. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected print media in Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up managers, editors, news correspondents and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
Internet have changed the entire system of Journalism Practice in Nigeria. Both the print and broadcast media are affected in one way or the other by the information revolution. Information is the primary input as well as the final output of Media industry. It collects raw information and converts it into categorized, defined and useful pieces of information. Therefore it will not be an exaggeration to say that the radical changes brought in the realm of information through Internet revolution are bound to affect Newspaper more than any other industry. The adoption and absorption of Internet are being carried out in newspaper industry by bringing efficiencies in all the functional wings including newsgathering, production, editorial and marketing so as to gain competitive advantage (Indo American Print summit 2008:153). Internet are now used not just by press but increasingly by reporters and editors also in Nigeria. Its benefits are being recognized at every point of the entire supply chain of Journalism Practice. The impact of Internet on every aspect of Newspaper, on the product, the production process, marketing and distribution in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. According to Chris (2001:7), technology development and absorption in Newspaper industry improved the printing process and reduced the operating time of editorial desks. The profuse use of online content and facilities has led to dominance of many-to-many model over one-to-many model of information collection. The individual or the department entrusted for the collection of information and news (Journalist) could gather information as per own and others convenience. The wide range of editing, page making, database, photo imaging, and mixing software provided cutting-edge facilities to newspaper business which could now streamline and integrate intra-wings functions within a newspaper. The use of telefax, websites, online database, web based information sites, and online readers and newsmakers, made the cumbersome job of information collection and reporting easier than ever before.
The facilities of emails, personal blogs, and online discussion forums further have widened the canvas of information as the news of remotest areas could be retained within the deadlines. Information Technology made its presence felt in all quarters of news quarters. It not only impacted the functioning of newspapers and various departments but even gave birth to new avatar, the epaper. Limitation of print versions, reach and accessibility, cost of newsprint abetted by unfathomable vista of Internet encouraged Newspapers companies Nigeria to launch electronic version of editions. Thus, Internet made the newspaper available literally with a click of mouse anywhere anytime. However, the e-paper is not a substitute to the print version rather a complement to the same. There is a complete transformation from the days when reporters used to file report, which had to be cleared and screened by band of sub-editors, followed by final checking of story by editor himself/herself and even an army of trained proof readers. Whereas now the reports are being filed online or on Local Area Network, read, crosschecked and edited electronically, saving time and money. Mass media evolved because people from all walks of life needed help to understand the world around them. Throughout history, newspapers have excelled at collecting, recording, and distributing information at many different levels and geographic locales. As they evolve in light of technological change, newspapers need to embrace that mission anew. In fact, defining what is news is now more critical than ever. And it is their ability to do this within the context of new technologies that is the key to newspapers’ survival. Writing in a recent New York Times Magazine column, veteran journalist Frankel (2005:38) prognosticates: The newspapers that prosper in the next century will be the ones that offer the best journalism, that master the subjects about which they write and acquire the talent and expertise to appraise and explain an infinite variety of events. Newspapers can trust the fermenting computer industry to perfect the technologies that will gradually replace their presses and delivery trucks. It’s talent that they will need to survive in the digital age gifted editors, reporters, and image artists who can find meaning in the approaching information glut. Today, the use of advanced commercial printing machnery has also
enabled newspaper industry to print copies with well-defined properties, capable of producing high precision graphic prints along with other direct mail printing services, the modern digital printing machines are printing 30 thousand and above copies per hour as against 3000 to 4000 copies per hour published by old printing press. According to Tony (2004:4), the incorporation of digital inkjet proofing and colour management has enabled newspapers to use distributed printing sites to produce product while minimizing the possibility of colour loss and poor print quality. Decentralized printing distribution has been given a further boost by the introduction of inserting and distribution technologies that help in newspaper customize and produce targeted products. In the past, traditional newspapers could only tell stories through text and images only, but now the advent of new media technologies allows journalists to tell stories in multiple channels. This increases the credibility of the story. It also allows users (readers), to become active participants in information creation. In other words, it turns users from been passive recipients of information to active participants of information production. Based on the medium strengths and weakness barometer above it is apparent that online news services are multifunctional and flexible than other traditional forms of news media (Craig, 2005:13). This is also so because online services incorporate all functionalities which are found in traditional news media. It is also so because online news services are able to offer a tripple play (i.e. video, text and audio) which other news media channels can only offer in isolation.
- STATEENT OF THE PROBLEM
The processes of using manual in Journalism Practice over the years have been of major concern to newspaper industry. Manual production processes of Newspaper not only in Nigeria but the world over takes more time and more workers than the modern process but yet produces less number of copies. This cumbersome process affects the financial base of the industry as more workers and time are required to produce less number of copies which in most cases also fail to meet both the deadlines and the number demanded for. The dependency on manual production also created tedious jobs for reporters, correspondents, editors, copywriters, as well as distribution department. These problems and others are what this research work seeks to solve. The adoption of Internet, have altered the manual production process. Technology development and absorption in Newspaper industry has improved the printing process and reduced the operating time of editorial desk. The journalist, correspondent or the editorial department entrusted for the collection of information and news (Journalist) could gather information while in the office without much inconvenience using the modern technology. Though new technology has introduced some extra costs, it has brought benefits in return. Portable computers mean that reporters working away from the main office can now deliver stories quickly, simply and reliably using a modem, rather than dinternetating them to a typist or a rewrite desk as in the case of manual production. The ability to submit stories and communicate with editors electronically saves time for most journalists, particularly freelancers, who often delivered their finished work by hand in the past. Now they can easily work for publications far from office, without worrying about the time and cost of delivering completed work.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To know the contribution of Internet to Journalism Practice in Nigeria
- To verify how effective, the application of Internet has been in newspapering in Nigeria
- To ascertain the problems associated with the adoption of Internet in Journalism Practice in Nigeria.
- To find out the extent to which Internet have affected manual production in newspaper industry in Nigeria.
- To identify how newspaper organizations have harnessed the potential of Internet in enhancing newspaper development in Nigeria.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: there is no contribution of Internet to Journalism Practice in Nigeria.
Hi: there is contribution of Internet to Journalism Practice in Nigeria.
Ho: there are no problems associated with the adoption of Internet in Journalism Practice in Nigeria.
Hi. There are problems associated with the adoption of Internet in Journalism Practice in Nigeria.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study helps to show how Internet have improved the delivery of news, research and news gathering processes of newspapers industry
The study is significant because it helps to know how the daily reality of Internet contributes in Journalism Practice process. Journalist now has a chance to really know and interact with his or her audience that goes way beyond traditional letters to the editor.
Also is significant because it would serve as a point of reference for those seeking additional information on this research topic and other related subject matter.
This study will also add to existing literature on the role of Internet newspaper in Journalism Practice
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers influence of digital technology on the practice of journalism in Nigeria. These constraints include but are not limited to the following;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Chowdhury (2000,p.23) writes that Internet encompass technologies that can process different kinds of information (voice, video, audio, text and data) and facilitate different forms of communications among human agents, among humans and information systems, and among information systems. They are about capturing, storing, processing, sharing, displaying, protecting, and managing information. Duncombe and Heeks (1999,p.128) simplify the definition by describing INTERNET as an “electronic means of capturing, processing, storing and disseminating information”.
To non-economist, production would only mean the making or creating of something tangible. According to Anyanwuocha (2006,p.22), production involves the creation of utility. It is the creation of wealth in the form of goods and the provision of services which are capable of satisfying human wants. It could also be described as any activity involving human effort, leading to the satisfaction of human wants.
A newspaper is a publication containing news, information, and advertising that is usually published on daily basis. Newspapers often feature articles on political events, crime, business, art/entertainment,society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns that express the personal opinions of writers.
Are the processes (from news gathering to news stand) through which newspaper passes before it is in hardcopy or softcopy[email protected][email protected]