INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING ON STUDENTS DISCIPLINE IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KEFFI, NASARAWA STATE
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study is the influence of guidance and counselling on students discipline in public and private secondary schools in keffi, Nasarawa state. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school in Keffi, Nasarawa state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals ad, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
Guidance and counselling are essential elements in discipline management of people in all societies even the most primitive societies grew out of the necessity of guiding individual’s behavior patterns in the interest of the group.
Guidance and counselling as a movement was started in America at the beginning of 20th Century as a reaction to change process in an industrialized society. Guidance and counselling services were set up within the department of education in September 1968 when the recommendations made by Louis, a consultant sent over to Malta by United Nation’s Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), were taken up, Summit (1997). Globally, guidance and counselling services are essential elements in discipline management of people in all societies. It could be difficult for any society to function well without the exercise of discipline. School guidance and counselling programmes have therefore been introduced to assist students overcome the number of challenges they experience at home and at school. Nziramasanga (1999) states that because of many pressures imposed on the family, parents tend to have little time with their children to give them the necessary guidance. The parents expect the school to provide solutions to the indiscipline in secondary schools caused by their children. UNESCO (2002:2) adds that “African adults have become more concerned with earning money and are less occupied with many traditional practices that formerly contributed to the upbringing of young people”. Rapid sociological changes emanating from modernization and urbanization stress students. In Malawi the need for guidance and counselling is recognized when a survey was done of 20 school counsellors in southern and central regions and the main problems examined. It was proven that, there is great need for a clear rationale and guidelines for Guidance and Counselling programmes, Taylor and Francis (1998). The main goal is to help the counselee learn to deal more effectively with himself and the reality of his environment. Allis and Kame (1999) conducted a cross-section survey on indiscipline among 2170 preparatory and secondary school students enrolled in the mainstream governmental schools in Alexandria in Egypt. Indiscipline among school students and its predictors were investigated. Few indiscipline cases were related to family background whereas the majority was related to the children themselves. Schools are social systems which have several objectives to achieve and the role of guidance and counselling is vital in shaping the discipline of the students. Counselling is a process of helping individuals or group of people to gain self understanding in order to be themselves. Burks and Steffler (1979) see counselling as a professional relationship between a trained Counsellor and a client. Olayinka (1972) defined it to be a process whereby a person is helped in a face-to-face relationship while Makinde (1983) explained counselling as an enlightened process whereby people help others by encouraging their growth. Counselling is a process designed to help clients understand and clarify personal views of their life space, and to learn to reach their self-determined goals through meaningful, well-informed choices and a resolution of problems of an emotional or interpersonal nature. It believes that every human individual has the potential for self-growth, self-development and self-actualization. Although guidance and counselling was introduced to Kenya formally in 1967, under the Ministry of Education, it had been engraved in the African traditional society since time memorial. A report of the National committee on Education Objectives and Policies Gachathi Report, (Republic of Kenya 1976), recommended that the Ministry of Education should take charge of delivering counselling services. Despite the recommendations, the use of guidance and counselling services was still wanting in helping curb indiscipline in various schools, which was increasing. It is now vital to borrow the concept of formal guidance and counselling from the western world to meet the social changes in our society. Gitonga (2007) laments that due to educational and economic challenges they have to grapple with; parents are left with no time to positively parent their children. The result is permissive parenting style, which has its toll on the growing child. Permissive parenting style has no rules or limits. Wangai (1994), in supporting this view observes that modernization in Africa has caused the disintegration of the traditional social structure. He suggested that clear supportive and progressive policies are needed to deal with most problems facing youth through schooling. Such policies can be implemented through the integration of guidance and counselling in secondary school programs.
Discipline is part of a very long tradition that may have been there from the beginning of human existence. It is through guidance and counselling that school administrators can manage discipline to students. Discipline is a rudimentary ingredient that plays a crucial role in school system and insists on upholding the moral values of students. It is intended to suppress, control and redirect behaviour. In a school system all students must be aware of the rules before disciplinary action can be administered, Franken (1998). The concept of matching discipline and guidance and counselling helps to determine the value of G&C to students in schools. Parents and schools share the responsibility of promoting values and standards which we hope will help younger people to establish sound behavioural codes for their lives, hence they ensure good discipline is maintained among students. There is great effort made by the Ministry of Education to offer guidance and counselling services to schools but still cases of indiscipline in public secondary schools are reported and keffi, Nasarawa state is not exceptional. The researcher intended to explore the influence of guidance and counselling towards students’ discipline in secondary schools in keffi, Nasarawa state
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In spite of the implementation of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools indiscipline issues still exist. Wangai (1994) points out that the youth indulge in pleasure and luxury. They have bad manners, contempt for authority, and disrespect for older people. It is common to hear parents, teachers and church leaders blaming each other, for failing to teach young people to be well behaved. Many parents have abandoned the teaching of their children which they have entrusted to the teachers The Ministry of Education has ensured that each school has a teacher-counsellor appointed by Teachers Service Commission, (T.S.C) yet indiscipline cases persist and Keffi, Nasarwa state is not exceptional. Among them all, Keffi has a trend of indiscipline issues that were to be addressed. Due to the influence of external environment as most schools are day schools and the abject poverty among many families, many students indulge in drug abuse and unwanted sex. Ojwang’(2012) in her study: “Causes and effects of students’ unrest in keffi,” asserts that attempts to curb unrests by education stakeholders, the community and the government have not yielded any success. Another incident was in keffi secondary school where students protested against the arrest of two female students who had attended a disco at night in a nearby shopping centre. These among other incidents contributed to the need to research on the ways in which good discipline can be restored in the institutions of learning. So this study sought to ascertain ways in which guidance and counselling influences discipline in public secondary schools in Keffi, Narasawa state
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Objectives of the study are;
- To determine the extent to which provision of guidance and counselling materials influences students’ counselling in Keffi, Nasawara state
- To establish the extent to which teacher-counsellors’ exposure to training influences students’ discipline.
- To determine the influence of training of peer counselling on students’ discipline.
- To establish the extent to which guest speakers on guidance and counselling influences students’ discipline.
- 4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no influence of training of peer counselling on students’ discipline.
H1: there is influence of training of peer counselling on students’ discipline.
H02: there is no extent to which guest speakers on guidance and counselling influences students’ discipline
H2: there is extent to which guest speakers on guidance and counselling influences students’ discipline
- 5 SIGNIFCANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study would shed light to educational stakeholders about the significance of guidance and counselling in upholding discipline among secondary school’s students. Some school administrators and teachers in general would appreciate the importance of guidance and counselling in promoting discipline among students and be encouraged to go for Professional training in the discipline to be able to perform it professionally. The students would also benefit from the guidance and counselling services to have a focus in life and be responsible citizens with the skills in time management as well as upholding good morals.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers influence of guidance and counselling on students discipline in public and private secondary school in Keffi, Nasawara state. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Adolescents -refers to young people who experience a transition period following the advent of puberty that marks the changes from childhood to adulthood especially within the period of learners between ages 10 and 20.
Attitude-refers to positive or negative predisposition to think, feel, perceive and behave in a certain way towards a given situation.
Career Counselling– refers to a process of offering, advising and cautioning learners who may go astray in their career choice. Client-refers to a learner receiving guidance and counselling services from a Professional helper, also known as counsellor.
Counselling-refers to helping process that uses the safety of a special relationship between the counsellor and the counselee-who together explore the thoughts, feelings and counsellor attitudes of the counselee with the objective of tapping the resources within the counselee to effect healing and change.
Counsellor– refers to a Professional with skills of helping people deal with challenges in their lives by creating a relationship with them
Discipline- refers to a system of guiding an individual to make reasonable decisions and uphold social ethics personally and in groups.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study