1.1. Background to the Study
The major objective of every organisation is to increase its productivity, and this is determined by the abilities and competences of its workforce. Manpower is the total number of all available workers in an organization. The role and importance of manpower in any business or enterprises cannot be overemphasized. Manpower is the basis of all resources used and it is the indispensable means of converting other resources to mankind’s use and benefits, so how well we develop and employ human resources skills is fundamental in deciding how much will be accomplished as an organization. Manpower development and utilization is of utmost importance to any organization, it deals is expected to ensure optimal performance of workers assigned roles in an efficient and effective manner. According to Adeniyi (1995), manpower or staff training and development is a necessary work activity that makes a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. Fajana (2002) the effectiveness and success of an organization lies on the people who form and work within the organization.
Saraswathi (2010) says manpower development in the organizational context is a process by which the employees of an organization are helped in a continuous, planned ways to acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions. There is no doubt that in this advanced age of development and technological breakthrough, manpower must be developed to meet the challenges of modern technology. Trained and well-developed manpower is the essential ingredient for efficiency and effectiveness in Nigeria Television Authority (NTA). To validate this assertion, Ojohwoh (2011) posit that manpower occupies an indispensable position in any establishment, be it an industry, commercial or educational institution. Onah (2014) says what sets most successful organization apart is how they manage human resources. The role of personnel training is inevitable, as many organisations have come to realize that training remains the only medium for improving productivity and ensuring work standard.
Equipment plays a very important role in any organization. The importance of broadcasting equipment cannot be overrated. The broadcast equipment are able to cater for the ever increasing demand for better methods of collecting data, editing the data into information and relaying the information to the target market.
The development of manpower is no doubt a key to Nigeria’s socioeconomic and political development. In the broadcasting industry such as Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) manpower development cannot be overemphasized. NTA runs the largest television network in Nigeria with stations in several parts of the country. The first television station in Nigeria, the Western Nigerian Government Broadcasting Corporation (WNTV) began broadcasting on 31 October 1959, with Olapade Obisesan as chairman and Vincent Maduka as general manger. In 1962, the three regional government had set up the Nigerian Television Service (NTS). Then with the creation of twelve states in Nigeria, more television services were established and by 1976 when all televisions were taken over by the federal government under decree 24 of 1977, NTA was founded as a sole entity responsible for television broadcasting in Nigeria, beginning with 10 stations. As of 1979, NTA had reached about 20% of the Nigerian population, by 1999 it had reached 30 stations. Today it boost of 101 stations, this development have given NTA the status of the largest network in Africa.
NTA’s vision is to be a World Class Television Network. Its mission is to provide excellent television services worldwide and project the true African perspectives. NTA’s corporate objectives is to influence, promote, sustain and improve Nigeria’s positive societal values through social, cultural, economic, political and technological programmes. To provide viewers with the most reliable, authoritative and independent coverage and analysis of contemporary issues of national and international events through News programmes, to promote civic responsibilities among others. Its core values are national interest, professionalism, accuracy, credibility, balance and objectivity, sensitivity and commitment to world peace and development.
As a global network, NTA presently has bureaus in 7 countries of the world, including the United Kingdom, Washington DC, Ottawa (Canada), Accra (Ghana), Cairo (Egypt), Germany and China. These bureaus are manned by experienced reporters who cover Nigerian related events across the world.
The structure and management of NTA
The board of directors is made up of 8 government appointed members of 8 executive directors and headed by the Director General. The executive Directors head the following Directorates:
- Directorate of programmes: NTA’s programmes Directorate has produced programmes in the genres of drama, children, youth, talk shows and documentaries, all targeting at family entertainment.
- Directorate of News: the Directorate deploys both its core News and current affairs to the populace in actualization of Government’s policies and programmes.
- Directorate of Marketing: is charged with the primary responsibility of generating revenue for the authority.
- Directorate of Finance and Administration: responsible for the administrative running and financial management of the organization.
- Directorate of Engineering: responsible for the technical aspect of the organization.
- Directorate of Special Duties: this Directorate carries out exceptional services that fall outside the core activities of the traditional operational areas of Television Broadcasting and its auxiliary departments of Corporate Affairs and Research Development. It also supervise the Multi-channels project comprising of 8 specialized broadcasting activities of NTA on digital platform. These channels are NTA News 24, NTA entertainment, NTA Knowledge, NTA parliament, NTA sports 24 and NTA Languages channels (Hausa, Igbo [Igbo Ezue] and Yoruba [Ikanni Oodua]).
- Directorate of Training and Capacity Building: this directorate is responsible for manpower development, through regular training of staff via workshops, seminars and short courses.
NTA outside broadcast capacity is outstanding, with latest OB Vans with HD facilities. NTA is positioned to deliver the best television and allied services through its subsidiaries. Unfortunately, the overwhelming and pervasive role of manpower resources and equipment in NTA seem to be compromised to the extent of misplacing its role in the achievement of organizational objectives.
The organization is bogged down by a number of issues, among which is human and material. Vehicles, cameras, computers, editing facilities and other modern technologies which can facilitate the work of the organization are in short supply. Also, about 70% of those who pass recruitment tests organized by the station are usually not recruited but rather replaced by nominees of the executive and legislative arms of the government (Tonnie, Vanguard 2016).
There are a number of factors that contribute to the success of any broadcasting industry such as capital, equipment, manpower etc. In Nigeria, many organizations have been deficient in their operations and the overall effectiveness due to the type or calibre of manpower/equipment they have. The federal government of Nigeria have tried to solve this problems by providing funds. Ismail Mudashir (Daily Trust, 2019) The Federal Executive Council approved N1.3 billion for the replacement of some obsolete equipment at the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA), Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) and the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN).
NTA Lokoja is a broadcasting house charged with the responsibility of disseminating information among others. To effectively perform its function, it require well trained, developed, professional, dynamic manpower and advanced equipment.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
The importance of manpower training and equipment availability has no doubt been recognized in many organisations as the key factor for improved productivity. However, manpower training in the broadcast sector is threatened with a number of problems like the absence of regular training despite the continuous reforms with emphasis on training, this is because the various reforms in the broadcast sector have not considered it necessary to establish definite and continuous training programmes that will increase employees’ productivity. Equipment provided do not meet up with modern standard. Manpower and advanced equipment are considered the most critical to any organizational survival.
Employees of most broadcasting organisations are seldom sent for training and those who desire to undertake any form of training may not be given any kind of support. When staff embark on skill acquisition programmes, management sometimes do not provide the necessary equipment to enhance operations which could lead to redundant staffs.
This is so much so in NTA, for some time now it appears manpower development and equipment in NTA has been unsatisfactory, unplanned and unsystematic, and several of its employee such as machine operators, junior and middle level engineers, account clerks, computer operators, secretaries, drivers and many other category of workers, have not qualified for any form of training nor is there any systematic process of staff development in place.
Apart from the above, it was also observed that there is a paucity of data base needed for manpower planning, more emphasis is placed on the traditional personnel management functions like recruitments, placement, wages, administration, discipline and employee welfare at the detriment of manpower development. Moreover, workers are not deployed based on the skills acquired during the training. Some of the staff that has benefitted or sent at all for training, with all the financial resources incurred on the government name, have not been given the opportunity or placed in their rightful places according to the relevant training received. This has also been a very big problem as it leads to frustration and general inefficiency.
In NTA Lokoja, the ability to achieve and sustain competitive advantage lies within the availability of equipment, the level of manpower development. This study, therefore, intends to investigate the influence of manpower/equipment on productivity in the NTA with reference to NTA Lokoja.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The general objective of the study is to evaluate the influence of manpower/equipment on productivity in NTA Lokoja. The specific objectives are to:
- examine the impact of manpower on productivity in NTA Lokoja.
- ascertain the impact of equipment on productivity in NTA Lokoja.
- identify the challenges to effective manpower training in NTA Lokoja.
- investigate the challenges in accessing equipment in NTA Lokoja.
1.4. Research Questions
The study seeks to answer the following questions:
- What is the impact of manpower on productivity in NTA Lokoja?
- What is the impact of equipment on productivity in NTA Lokoja?
- What are the challenges to effective manpower training in NTA Lokoja?
- What are the challenges in accessing equipment in NTA Lokoja?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The study is guided by the following hypotheses:
H0: There is no significant relationship between manpower and productivity in NTA Lokoja.
H0: There is no significant relationship between equipment and productivity in NTA Lokoja.
H0: There are no major challenges to effective manpower training in NTA Lokoja.
H0: There are no challenges in accessing equipment in NTA Lokoja.
1.6. Significance of the Study
Efficiency and effectiveness are the major goals of any organisation and this may not be achieved without recognizing the role of manpower training and equipment availability. This is because an inadequately trained employee using an absolete equipment is completely useless to the full achievement of the organizational goals. This applies to broadcasting sector in general and NTA Lokoja in particular.
This study is essential in discovering the relevance and impact of manpower/equipment on productivity in NTA Lokoja. This study will be important to NTA Lokoja, as it will help guide the management of NTA Lokoja on how it can operate, treat its workers, help to know the kind and level of equipment needed. It will teach it the importance of manpower and the necessary guide of attaining manpower. It will also help the management get maximum value from the employees by introducing training programmes at various cadres of the workforce; and enable them bring out better manpower development and utilization training programmes for its employees.
Furthermore, it will reveal the approaches to manpower training and equipment provision that is needed to address the deficiency as well as the due processes to be taken in order to achieve effectiveness in NTA. The study will unveil the challenges associated with manpower training and accessing equipment and proffer solutions to the challenges of training in NTA Lokoja.
Moreover, the recommendations of the study if strictly adhered to will improve manpower training exercise and ensure advanced technology in NTA Lokoja as well as contribute to the formulation of policies on broadcasting. Finally, the findings of the study if implemented, will greatly inspire the administration and control of the broadcasting sector to provide adequate funding for manpower training/equipment to resolve the problems of low productivity in the Nigerian broadcasting sector. Since evidence have shown that investment in manpower training/equipment is associated to increased productivity, which in turn boost socio-economic and political development.
It is hoped that the exploration of NTA Lokoja will provide a broad view of the operations of the media house to investors and government. The changing character of the broadcasting industry especially, the television station reforms including the licensing of online radio and television stations has affected the industry in recent times and will push studies on manpower/equipment on the industry to new evidence(s). This study will be of benefit to;
The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.
Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the broadcasting industry. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the industry.
Investors: investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.
This study at the end will enlighten the management of the company on the implication of inadequate equipment and manpower training.
1.6. Scope of the Study
The study is focused on the influence of manpower/equipment on productivity in NTA Lokoja in 2019 using staff workers. NTA Lokoja is located in No. 3, Olu of Oworo road, Lokoja, Kogi state. Other factors that affect productivity like remuneration and so on were not included in this study because sufficient time is required to gather the data, check and validate the questionnaires.
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms have been defined operationally.
- Equipment: a set of tools or other objects commonly used to achieve a particular objective, this include the equipment used in NTA Lokoja.
- Manpower: the total number of all available workers; the workforce. This implied the total number of pensionable employees of NTA Lokoja.
- Training: the act of teaching a person a particular skill or type of behaviour. It is a type of activity which is planned, systematic and it results in enhanced level of skill, knowledge and competency that are necessary to perform work effectively. It include the various training programmes undergone in NTA Lokoja.
- Human resource management: is the way organizations manage their staff and help them to develop in order to be able to execute organizations’ missions and goals successfully. It relates to the way NTA Lokoja manages its staffs.
1.9 Organisation of the Study
The study is divided into five chapters: chapter one embodies the introduction, background to the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study. The chapter two includes: the literature review, review on the concept of manpower and equipment on productivity in Nigeria. This involves various definitions of manpower planning, training, types of training and manpower development programmes, the need for manpower planning and development, equipment need in a broadcast station, equipment and manpower in NTA, overview of NTA Lokoja, the review of empirical studies, theoretical review, theoretical framework and summary of literature review. Chapter three deals with the methodology which includes: introduction, research design, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data collection, validity and reliability of instrument and method of data analysis. Chapter four deals with the introduction, presentation and analyses of data and discussion of findings while chapter five provides the summary, recommendations, conclusion, limitations and suggestion for further research.