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Influence of School Climate on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State


The purpose of the study is to assess and compare the existing school climate, the performance gap which is observed in schools, the factor affecting student performance of government and private secondary schools at Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used. Quantitative data were collected using questionnaire for teachers’ respondents’ whereas qualitative data was collected using Interview for principals and Local Government supervisors, and related documents were also used as reference. The data was gathered from two government and two private secondary schools .113 teacher, 4 school principals, 2 Local Government supervisors were included as samples to obtain the necessary data. SPSS version 19.0 was used to enter and analyze the data. Descriptive statistics (percentage, mean value, standard deviation and p-value) was used to analyze and interpret the quantitative data gathered. The t- test also conducted to identify whether there is statistically significant difference among the school. The finding indicate that teachers in both types of school argue that moderate performance gap exist in government and private schools. it is possible to conclude that the government schools are focused on their employees ‘people focused while the private counterparts gave equal emphasis for both employees personal interest and the result that has to be achieved.




1.1 Background of the study

Student academic performance is mainly determined by the school climate. Today climate is a hot issue in every government and non-government, profit and nonprofit organization. Studies indicate that having a good climate leads organization to success. On the other hand lack of concentration to climate affect directly or indirectly the organization performance Nowadays student academic performance decrease from time to time. Recent evidence shows that many students are unable to pass to the next class. This is severing when we compare government and private schools students. What motivates the researcher is even though all teachers trained in the same university, all schools are governed by the ministry of education and they are at the same institutional level in annual education office inspection then what is the reason behind performance gap occurred between both types of schools.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the existing school climate difference of the schools, to assess how both the government and private secondary schools climate affect the performance of student, and the actual organizational gap could be investigated.

The research delimited to Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area selected government and private secondary schools. The research also delimited to grade 10 students who are learning in selected schools.

Schein (2004) defines school climate as a pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Robbins (1986) expresses school climate as a relatively uniform perception held of the organization..According to Cameron and Ettington (1988) climate has been treated as an  enduring  set  of values,  beliefs  and assumptions that characterize organizations and their members. According to the (Luthons, 2005) School climate is quite complex.


All school community stake holders have responsibility in building the future of school climate.So it is important to gain an in depth understanding of their engagement with this issue because through time the performance of the student in questions.


While there has been previous research on school climate and student performance According to Goldstone school climate is the most important instrument for the success of an organization. (Goldstone, 2007).

On the other hand, Aktas, Cicek and Kiyak(2011) claim by quoting different researchers that school climate has a strong and positive influence on organizational effectiveness of organizations.

According to Schein (1999) he suggests that school climate is even more important today than it was in the past. Increased acquisitions, alliances competition, mergers,globalization, and various workforce developments have created a greater need for: co-ordination and integration across organizational units.

The availability and adequacy of resources that is important for learning affects the effectiveness of learning processes in a school setting. Teaching and learning resources improve understanding of intangible ideas and advance performance.


1.2 Statement of the problem

School climate is hidden and difficult to identify. According to Schien (1989, p. 275), climate does not disclose itself easily. Organization is an entity and it has its own school climate that makes them similar or different with other organizations especially who are working in the same sector or service. Since their inception government and private secondary schools with inIkpoba Okha sub city have built and are building their own school climate in order to render the service that they are established for.

Even though necessary inputs for the government secondary schools are being provided by the government itself and the community, still, the efficiency and effectiveness of the private secondary schools is better than the government ones. To prove the case, among the three categories of schools annual inspections criteria (input, process and result) always the government secondary schools are in better or the same level than the private ones (Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area annual inspection result report).

So, here, the major paradox that initiated or caused the thesis is that what will be the actual or real reason behind the effectiveness of the private secondary schools than the government ones while they are at the same institutional level in annual education office inspection. The other factor that initiated the researcher is there is lack of knowledge in the topic that is going to be researched.

We therefore analyzed by identifying the existing school climate difference and performance gap between the school.

1.3. Research questions

  1. Is there any school climate difference between private and government schools and students’ academic performance?
  2. What performance gaps are observed in government and private secondary schools?
  3. What are the factors affecting climate difference between private and government schools?


1.4   Objectives of the study

1.4.1. General objectives

The general objective of the study was indented to identify the entire school climate and performance difference among the private and government selected secondary schools at Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area and to indicate the possible ways that enable the institutions to narrow the gap in organizational effectiveness.

1.4.2  Specific Objectives

  1. To identity factors affecting school climate that are observable in both type of secondary
  2. To identify the actual performance gap between the


1.5. Significance of the study

As a systematic or scientific research, the outcome of the study would be important for every stake holder in education. From the schools point of view the findings of the study could be used as a framework for improving academic performance in both government and private secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. Principles may utilize the result of the study to establish ways and means of improving performance in their respective schools from those who had good academic standards.

On the other hand, the research is equally important for government education administration bodies too. The finding of this study would give the detail reasons that cause the entire organizational effectiveness difference among the schools and consequently indicates the possible ways that enable the government organs to contribute their own share in the narrowing the gap.

1.6. Delimitation /scope of the Study

Geographically, the study was delimited to the selected secondary schools of Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. The study also delimited to grade 10. Surprisingly all selected schools have more than 35 years’ experience and develop their own strong organization climate. So working in this area enable the researcher obtain relevant information to make the study more manageable and feasible with the given time scope.

The study is delimited to those 113respondents of teachers, 4 principles and 2 supervisors. The study was also delimited to school climate issues related to student performance.


1.7. Definition of key terms

School climate: School climate refers to the quality and character of school life

Private secondary schools: schools owned by individuals or religious organizations to provide education from grade 9-10.

Observed behavioral regularities. When organization members interact, they use common language, terminology, and rituals and ceremonies related to deference and demeanor.

Norms. Standards of behavior evolve in work groups that are considered acceptable or typical for a group of people. The impact of work-group behavior, sanctioned by group norms, results in standards and yardsticks

Dominant values. An organization espouses and expects its members to share major values. Typical examples in schools are high performance levels of faculty and students, low absence and dropout rates of students, and high efficiency.

Philosophy. Policies guide an organization’s beliefs about how employees and clients are to be treated. For example, most school districts have statements of philosophy or mission statements

Rules. Guidelines exist for getting along in the organization, or the “ropes” that a newcomer must learn in order to become an accepted member.

Climate. This is an overall atmosphere that is conveyed in an organization by the physical layout and the way in which members interact with clients or other outsiders

Performance– students’ achievement in relations, to attainment of objective.


Academic performance: Refers to achievement in standardized tests or examinations shown by a student. According to Niebuhr (1995) Academic performance of students is typically assessed by the use of teacher’s ratings, tests, and examinations

Principal: refers to a person appointed to administer a secondary school.


1.8. Organization of the Study

This study organized into five chapters. The first chapter deals with introductory elements including the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, basic questions, scope of the study,

, definition of key terms and organization of the study. The second chapter covers a review of the related literature which discusses important topics pertaining to school climate and student performance. The third chapter consists of research design and the methodology. The fourth chapter provides the result and discussion of the data. Finally, in the last chapter, summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations are presented.



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