Investigating the technological pendagogical content knowledge of biology science teachers and the impacts on students’ performance in selected public secondary schools
This study was on Investigating the technological pendagogical content knowledge of biology science teachers and the impacts on students performance in selected public secondary schools. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Ibada, Oyo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principal adm, teachers and marketers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
1.1Background of the study
A major concern in science teacher education is the development of teachers‟ knowledge base for improving classroom practice and students‟ learning (Brown, Friedrichsen & Abell, 2013; Kind, 2009). According to De Jong, Veal and Van Driel (2002), this concern has come about, first, as a result of studies that show a strong relationship between what teachers know (content knowledge), and how they teach (pedagogical knowledge). And secondly, constructivist views on science teaching and learning suggest that teachers‟ knowledge base must of necessity include knowledge of students‟ preconceptions or alternative frameworks which could be used as the basis of a good teaching point on students‟ behalf. The three types of teacher knowledge, namely, subject matter content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and knowledge of students‟ preconceptions and learning difficulties, relate to what Shulman (1986) and others (Loughran, Berry & Mulhall, 2012) have collectively referred to as pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Pedagogical content knowledge has been simply described as that teacher knowledge which allows teachers to assist students to access specific content knowledge in a meaningful way (Miller, 2007). Recent global trends in science education enrolment show that not many students opt for science at secondary school level. In addition, there is also widespread poor performance and negative attitudes towards the subject matter itself (Barmby, Kind & Jones, 2008; Kazeni & Onwu, 2013).
The framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is commonly used for understanding, learning, and describing different knowledge types needed by professors or teachers (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Proper guidance is provided by the decision and policy makers while formulating the policy of an education system in order to develop and implement technologies in teaching and learning (Lee, 2002). However, technological advancements in education should not only be focused, but additionally, there is the need for more effective learning tools (Romeo, 2006). There is positive impact of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) on various learning processes (Romeo, 2006). The development of three overlapping components of learning including content, pedagogy and technology conceptualises the pedagogical approaches. Cox and Graham (2009) have argued that TPACK may help educators to understand the potential contributions of new technologies in education. According to Graham (2011), TPACK can be used to assess the way in which teachers’ professional development affects their performance in the classroom with the use of ICT. The added value of TPACK can be found in the support it provides students through technology in their learning, and their development of conceptual, and procedural attributes (Voogt, Fisser, Pareja Roblin, Tondeur & Van Braak, 2013). Based on this background the researcher wants to investigate the technological pendagogical content knowledge of biology science teachers and the impact on students’ performance
Statement of the problem
Traditional learning methods need to be changed as per advanced learning approaches, with the use of ICT. Bransford, Brown and Cocking (2000) have argued general teaching skills to be required in order to revise with the use of advanced technologies for effective teaching. Lee (2002) meanwhile suggested that with the integration of ICT into schools, teachers ought to play the role of mentors, rather than expert in formation givers. This study investigating the technological pendagogical content knowledge of biology science teachers and the impacts on students’ performance in selected public secondary schools. The present study has contributed towards the understanding of the teacher’s level of knowledge in Technology, Pedagogy, and Content of science subjects especially biology science subject in Nigeria. This may also be helpful for other countries, where technology has not been effectively utilized by teachers. The study validates and reinforces the importance of technology in the teacher preparation stage, which is beneficial for other countries as well
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To find out the contribution of technology in the teaching of biology science in secondary school
- To ascertain the relationship between technological pendagogical content knowledge and student academic performance of biology science
- To find out teacher level of knowledge on technology, Pedagogy, and Content of biology science in secondary school
The following hypotheses are formulated;
H0: there is no contribution of technology in the teaching of biology science in secondary school.
H1: there is contribution of technology in the teaching of biology science in secondary school.
H0: there is no relationship between technological pendagogical content knowledge and student academic performance of biology science
H2: there is relationship between technological pendagogical content knowledge and student academic performance of biology science.
Significance of the study
The study will be very significant to students, teachers, ministry of education and the policy makers. The study will give a very clear insight on the technological pendagogical content knowledge of biology science teachers and the impacts on student performance. The study will give insight on the contribution of technology in education especially in the teaching of biology science. The study will also serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on the related topic
Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study covers Investigating the technological pendagogical content knowledge of biology science teachers and the impacts on students’ performance in selected public secondary schools. The study will be limited to selected government secondary schools in Ibadan.
In the process of this study the following limited the study:
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Technology: Technology is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.
Pendagogical: Anything that relates to teaching is pedagogical.The adjective pedagogical, pronounced “peh-duh-GAH-gi-cal,” comes from the Greek word paidagōgikos meaning “teacher.” If it’s pedagogical, it concerns teaching, from lesson plans to approaches to teaching, even how the classroom looks.
Content knowledge: Content knowledge generally refers to the facts, concepts, theories, and principles that are taught and learned in specific academic courses, rather than to related skills—such as reading, writing, or researching—that students also learn in school
Biology science: Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field composed of many specialized disciplines that study the structure, function, growth, distribution, evolution, or other features of living organisms