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Job Design And Employee Job Satisfaction A Case Study Of Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos State

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page       –           –           –           –           –           –           –          –           –           –           i

Declaration                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification   –           –           –           –           –           –          –           –          –           –           iii

Dedication                  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement     –           –           –           –           –           –          –           –           –           v

Table of content        –           –           –           –           –           –          –          –           –           vii

List of tables  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           x

Abstract         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –          –           –           xi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the study –           –           –           –          –          –           –           –           1

1.2. Statement of problem   –  –           –           –           –          –          –           –           –           3

1.3. Objectives of the study    –           –           –           –           –          –           –           –           4

1.4. Research questions           –           –           –           –           –            –          –           –           5

1.5. Research hypothesis         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.6. Significance of the study –           –           –           –           –          –           –           –           5

1.7. Scope of the study           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.8. Operational definition of terms   –           –           –           –            –          –           –           7

1.9. Organization of the Study           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.   Introduction                   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           10

2.2.   Conceptual Literature                –           –           –           –           —                      –           10

2.2.1. Job Design                    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           10

2.2.2. Job Satisfaction             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           13

2.2.3.   Objectives of Job Design        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           14

2.2.4. Factors Affecting Job Design   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           15

2.2.5. Overview of Nestle Nigeria PLC         –           –           –           –           –           –           17

2.3.    Reviews of Empirical Studies   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.3.1. Moeed Abid, Ambreen Sarwar, Kashif Imran, Abdul Jabbar and Abdul Hannan (2013);

Effect of Job Design on Employee Satisfaction (A Study of Fertilizer Companies

Listed in Lahore Stock Exchange)     –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.3.2. Dr. Rukaia Qasem Al-Badarin and Dr. Ahmad Hasan Al-Azzam (2017); Job Design

and Its Impact on the Job Strain: Analyzing the Job as a Moderating Variable in the

Private Hospitals in Irbid        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           19

2.5.3. Malkanthi and Hussain Ali (2016); Impact of Job Design on Employees’ Performance

in People’s Banks of Ampara District            –           –           –           –           –           20

2.3.4. Memoona Zareen, Kiran Razzaq and Bahaudin G. Mujtaba (2013); Job Design and

Employee Performance: the Moderating Role of Employee Psychological

Perception       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           21

2.3.5. Adagbabiri & Okolie (2019); Job Design and  Employee  Performance  in  Nigeria

Bottling  Company  Plc,  Benin  City.-           –           –           –           –           –           22

2.4.   Theoretical Review        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

2.4.1. Theory X and Theory Y                        –           –           –           –           –           –           23

2.4.2. Contingency Management Theory        –           –           –           –           –           –           26

2.4.3. Scientific Theory           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           27

2.4.4. Human Relations Theory          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           30

2.4.5. Socio-Technical Theory            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           31

2.4.6. Affect theory    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           32

2.4.7. Dispositional approach  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           33

2.4.8. Equity theory    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

2.4.9. Discrepancy theory       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

2.4.10. Two-factor theory       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

2.4.11. Job characteristic theory         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           37

2.5. Theoretical Framework                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           37

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1.   Introduction –     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

3.2.   Research Design –          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

3.3.   Population of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           39

3.4.   Sampling Size    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           39

3.5.   Sampling Technique       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           40

3.6.   Instrument for Data Collection  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

3.7.   Method of Data Collection        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

3.8.   Validity/Reliability of Instrument         –           –           –           –           –           –           42

3.8.1. Reliability test   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           43

3.9.    Method of Data Analysis         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           45

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1.   Introduction       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

4.2.   Data Presentation/Analysis        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

4.3. Testing of hypothesis       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           53

4.3.   Discussion of Findings  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           56

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1.   Introduction       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           61

5.2.   Summary            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           61

5.3.   Conclusion         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           62

5.4.   Recommendations         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           63

5.5.   Limitations to the Study                        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           64

5.6.   Suggestions for Further Studies                        –           –           –           –           –           –           64

 

REFERENCES        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           65

 

APPENDIX   –          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           67

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Sex of Respondents   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

Table 2 Age distribution of Respondents       –           –           –           –           –           –           47

Table 3 Marital status of respondents             –           –           –           –           –           –           47

Table 4: Education Attainment of Respondents        –           –           –           –           –           48

Table 5: Respondents views on whether they are satisfied with the design of their Job       49

Table 6: type of job design does Nestle Food Company practice      –           –           –           49

Table 7: Respondent view on how motivated they are to assist their department in meeting

its objectives  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           50

Table 8: Degree of work completion thus maximizing the time available for other

Activities     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

Table 9: Respondent view on whether improper job design affect employees’ performance

in Nestle Food Company     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           52

Table 10: Test of Hypothesis I            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           54

Table 11: Test of Hypothesis II          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           56

 

 

ABSTRACT

This research work empirically explored job design on employee job satisfaction in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state. The purpose of which is to investigate the impact of job design on employee job satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of job design on employee job satisfaction in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state, determine the effect of improper job design on employee performance in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state. The scope of the study is Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos in 2020 making use of its staffs, Human Relations Theory was used as a framework. The research design used for this study is survey, the population targeted for this study consists of all staffs of Nestle Food Company, Lagos state.  400 staffs were used as sample size and cluster sampling technique was applied. Instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. Data collected were collected from primary sources. From the analysis of the data, the findings shows that job design had significant impact on employee job satisfaction in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state, improper job design affect employee performance in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state. Following the findings, it was recommended that proper Job design should be ensured in an organization, improper job design affect employee performance therefore management should ensure that employees get job satisfaction. The study therefore concludes that job design has a positive impact on employee’s satisfaction in the manufacturing sector.

Keywords: job design, job satisfaction, motivation, Nestle Food Company Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the Study

Employees are key to organizational success. Organization have realised the importance of human resource and thus tried to attract, retain and motivate them in order to achieve organizational goals.  Onah (2014) says what sets most successful organization apart is how they manage human resources. Organizations today gives higher priority to the issues of employees satisfaction, retention, job enrichment, job design in order to keep the employees loyal to the organization (Abid et al, 2013). Job design is an important factor that makes significant impact over employees’ performance. Ojohwoh (2011) says manpower occupies an indispensable position in any establishment, be it an industry, commercial or educational institution.

Manpower is the basis of all resources used and it is the indispensable means of converting other resources to mankind’s use and benefits, so how well we develop and manage human resources is fundamental; job design is of utmost importance to any organization, as it deals with how best to keep employees comfortable in their jobs, up-to-date, resourceful and versatile; this is expected to ensure optimal and continual performance of their assigned roles in an efficient and effective manner. The role and importance of manpower in the long term viability of any business or enterprises cannot be overemphasized.

The nature and characteristics of employee’s job have a great impact on workers motivation and satisfaction. An effective job design brings involvement of an employee in work related activities. Theories behind work design traditionally focus on creating or changing the nature of employee’s job to improve their psychological state and therefore increase their performance outcomes.

Job design is the process of organizing work into the tasks required to perform a specific job. It involves the conscious efforts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. It is a core function of human resource management. It relate to specification of contents, methods and relationship of job in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder on the employees (Rush, 1971). The aim of a job design is to improve job satisfaction, quality of employee and to reduce employees’ problems such as grievances.

Employee satisfaction is the term used to describe whether employees are happy and fulfilling their desires and needs at work. Employee satisfaction is a measure of workers contentedness with their job, whether or not they like the job Spector (1997). Job satisfaction can be measured in cognitive, affective and behavioural components (Hulin and Judge, 2003). Researchers have noted that job satisfaction vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job or cognitions about the job.

There are a number of factors that contribute to the success of any organization. In Nigeria, many organizations have been deficient in their operations and the overall effectiveness due to job design. Nestle Nigeria PLC is one of the largest food and beverage companies in Africa, it is necessary that the organization have a well-structured job design that would ensure job satisfaction of its workers.

 

1.2. Statement of the Research Problem

The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival of a truism that adequate supply of material and financial resources that utilizes these available resources to bring about the desired goals. Employees in every organization wants to attain fulfilment from their jobs. The problem of job design stemmed from the fact that in today’s competitive environment, organizations globally wants to maximise potential of their employees to stay ahead and ensure competitive advantage. The problem of boredom and job dissatisfaction consequently result into employees’ low productivity.

In Nestle Nigeria PLC, the ability to achieve and sustain competitive advantage lies within the availability of a proper job design such that employees attain job satisfaction. The question of job design and employees satisfaction has received attention from managers and researchers. It is against this backdrop that the researcher considers job design and employee job satisfaction: a case study of Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state.

 

1.3. Objectives of the study

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of job design on employee job satisfaction in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state. The specific objectives are to:

  1. assess the impact of job design on employee job satisfaction in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state.
  2. determine the effect of improper job design on employee performance in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state.

 

1.4. Research Questions

This study will be guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the impact of job design on employee job satisfaction in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state?
  2. What are the effect of improper job design on employee performance in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state?

 

1.5. Research Hypothesis

The study is guided by the following hypotheses:

  1. H0: job design has no impact on employee job satisfaction in Nestle

Food Company Limited Lagos state.

 

1.6. Significance of the Study

The critical nature of job design to the success or growth of any organization is given. This is because improper job design is completely useless to the full achievement of the organizational goals. This applies to manufacturing sector in general and Nestle Food Company in particular. Empirically, this study is carried out to assess the impact of job design on employee job satisfaction in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state so as to ameliorate the organization from problems arising from improper job design resulting into low productivity.

This study will be important to Nestle Food Company, as it will help guide the management of Nestle Food Company on how it can operate, treat its workers. It will teach it the importance of job design and the necessary guide of a proper job design. It will also help the management get maximum value from the employees.

This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in the manufacturing industry for rapid capacity investment.  It is hoped that the exploration of Nestle Food Company will provide a broad view of the operations of the manufacturing sector to investors and government. The changing character of the manufacturing sector will push studies on job design and employee job satisfaction to new evidence(s). It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role, which job design plays in the manufacturing sector of the country. This study will be of benefit to;

The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.

Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the manufacturing sector. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the industry.

Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.

This study at the end will enlighten the management of the company on the implication of job design and employees’ job satisfaction.

 

1.7. Scope of the Study

This study is intended to examine the impact of job design on employee job satisfaction in Nestle Food Company Limited Lagos state in 2020 using the senior and junior staff workers. Nestle Nigeria PLC is located in No. 22/24, Industrial Avenue, Ilupeju, P.M.B. 21164, Ikeja, Lagos state.

 

 

1.8. Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined operationally.

  • Employee satisfaction: is a measure of worker’s contentedness with their job, this include how contented Nestle Food Company workers are with their job.
  • Manpower: the total number of all available workers; the workforce. This implied the total number of pensionable employees of Nestle Food Company.
  • Job design: it is related to the specification of contents, methods and relationship of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements of the job holder or the employee. It include Nestle Food Company job design.
  • Human resource management: is the way organizations manage their staff and help them to develop in order to be able to execute organizations’ missions and goals successfully. It relates to the way Nestle Food Company manages its staffs.

 

1.9. Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research  hypotheses,  objectives  of  the study, the  significance  of  the  study,   the scope  and  limitations  of  the  study  and  finally the  organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument.  Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

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