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 3,000

ABSTRACT

Around 400 million people worldwide are considered obese by the WHO. The fifth most common cause of death worldwide is obesity. Between 1980 and 2008, the prevalence of obesity and overweight nearly doubled. The purpose of this study is to gauge Lagos State people’ awareness of overweight and obesity. In the current study, people of Eti-Osa East LGA in Lagos state who were in good health were asked about their opinions and attitudes about obesity. Data for this exploratory and descriptive qualitative study were gathered through in-depth interviews. 18 people were questioned from the three chosen neighborhoods in the Eti-Osa East LGA medical metropolitan. The health belief model’s a priori themes were used in thematic analysis.

According to the results of the current survey, every citizen was aware of the harmful effects of being overweight or obese. Only a small percentage of the participants, however, decided to change to a healthier lifestyle as a result of their weight. Some of the positive motivators included enhancing their reputation, enhancing their health, and becoming more flexible, while some of the negative ones included having trouble fitting into old clothes, being afraid of developing obesity-related conditions, and lowering their risk of developing NCDs.

Participants said that obstacles to adopting a healthy lifestyle included African cultural values, short operating hours for physical activity facilities, and a lack of good food options. People are prevented from altering their behavior about weight control by the African cultural assumption that overweight people are healthy, advanced, and prosperous.

 

CHAPTERONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of study

Obesity and overweight are major public health issues. These are situations where a person has excessive body fat that puts their health at risk (WHO, 2013b). Body Mass Index is the most widely used indicator of overweight and obesity (BMI). A person’s weight and height are compared using the BMI statistic. It is used to identify issues with weight status that could put a person’s health at danger. Overweight persons are those with a BMI of 25 or higher, while obese people are those with a weight of 30 kg/m2 or above (WHO, 2000). The two names, however, are frequently used interchangeably.

 

The emergence of obesity is influenced by numerous variables. Diet, genetic susceptibility, physical activity, physiological factors, and behavioral factors are a few of these. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, gall bladder disease, arthritis, colon cancer, psychiatric issues, and other conditions are all greatly increased by it. However, obesity’s societal consequences are a serious issue that are frequently disregarded.

The socioeconomic issues include a reduced rate of school accomplishment, inadequate employment opportunities, and poorer self-confidence.

 

Similar results have been observed by African studies. According to Kasu, Ayim, and Tampouri (2022), 38.0% of Ghanaian residents were overweight or obese overall. Males had a prevalence of 32.9% and females of 42.4% for overweight or obesity, respectively. In Nigeria, there were 44.7% overweight and 27.3% obese health service providers, according to Ayankogbe and Fasanmade (2022). According to Garrido, Semeraro, Temesgen, and Simi’s (2009) research, 28.7% of Botswana’s population was overweight and 27.3% were obese.

 

Numerous citizens of Nigeria are overweight or obese, according to research there. At the provincial hospital in Mafikeng, according to Onyebukwau (2010), there were 29,7% and 41% of residents who were overweight or obese, respectively. Skaal and Pengpid (2011) did a study in a public tertiary hospital in Abuja and discovered that 75% of the patients were obese. Van den Berg, Okeyo, Dannhauser, and Nel (2012) revealed that 49.7% of nursing students at the University of Fort Hare in the Eastern Cape State were fat, further corroborating these findings.

 

These studies demonstrate how obesity and weight issues are major public health issues in Nigeria. However, little is known regarding locals’ attitudes toward fat and their awareness of obesity. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate how this crucial public health group—who ought to be knowledgeable and act as role models at the forefront of addressing this issue—perceives obesity.

 

Obesity prevalence has been rising in Nigeria, according to Nishida and Mucavele (2005), and Moloi (2013) confirmed this conclusion by estimating that 61% of Nigerians are obese. This pattern shows that obesity rates are rising among Nigerians overall, including locals. Given the Nigerian studies mentioned above, it is evident that obesity is a serious problem among locals (Onyebukwau, 2010).

 

Both emerging and developed nations are experiencing epidemic levels of obesity (Bocquier et al 2005). The prevalence is rising on a global scale. The main contributing component, according to theories, is an imbalance between calories consumed and expended, with dietary changes, inactivity, and genetic susceptibility also being significant (Ekpenyong et al, 2011, Obirikorang et al 2016). Obesity is described as an excessive or abnormal buildup of body fat that poses a risk to one’s health (Njelekela et al, 2022; Ranjit Kaur 2014, Shrivastava et al 2013). Having a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more is considered obese (K. Duval et al, 2006). Obesity is becoming a primary cause of death and a contributing factor in many serious illnesses. (Ekpenyong et al., 2011; Tagbo et al., 2022; Chukwuonye et al., 2013).

Adolescents are defined as being between the ages of 10 and 19. Over the past two decades, there has been an upsurge in childhood obesity. According to estimates, childhood obesity may likely last until adulthood. The likelihood of developing a non-communicable disease in old age is stated to grow. In 2010, it was predicted that 43 million children worldwide were overweight or obese, with developing nations accounting for the majority. (2002) (Njelekela et al. The rate of childhood obesity is alarmingly rising worldwide (Mwaikambo et al, 2022).

In Africa, obesity is recognized as a significant health issue (Pangani et al, 2016) Due to its significance for acute and chronic illnesses, development, and general health, public health organizations around the world place a high premium on preventing childhood obesity (Waters et al, 2011).

 

Knowledge is a very important factor in prevention.. Teenagers sometimes engage in behaviors and attitudes that put them at risk for being overweight or obese because they don’t know what causes it or how to avoid it (Adeleke et al 2022). The greatest strategy to combat obesity and overweight is to educate the public about the condition’s negative effects and hazards and encourage them to adopt preventative attitudes. Additionally, a positive outlook on obese people and obesity can aid in halting the tide of obesity. This study aims to evaluate secondary school students’ attitudes and understanding of obesity and its hazards in Eti Osa, Nigeria.

Numerous research have examined the incidence of obesity and its awareness in adult and adolescent females (under graduates). The same goes for mothers’ attitudes and knowledge. There are few research findings that describe the attitudes and knowledge of Lagos, Nigeria, residents. The goal of this study is to ascertain Nigerians’ knowledge of and attitudes concerning obesity and overweight.

 

1.2        Problem Statement

Numerous quantitative studies have identified obesity as a concern among locals (Onyebukwau, 2010). The productivity of the health workforce may decline, and there may be a rise in resident turnover if the obesity issue among residents continues. There haven’t been any studies done to far that examine residents’ attitudes toward obesity, their understanding of the problem, or the difficulties they experience in leading healthy lives. In the current study, people of Eti-Osa East LGA in Lagos state who were in good health were asked about their opinions and attitudes about obesity.

 

1.3        Aims And Objectives of study

 

1.3.1   AIM

The aim of the study was to explore residents’ perceptions and attitudes about obesity in Eti-Osa East LGA, Lagos state.

1.3.2   Objectives

The objectives of the study were:

  1. To explore the knowledge of obesity and overweight among residents;
  2. To explore the attitudes towards behaviour change among residents;
  3. To identify the barriers to adopting a healthy lifestyle among residents in Eti-Osa East LGA medical metropolitan complex.

Research Questions

 

  1. What are knowledge of obesity and overweight among residents?
  2. What are the attitudes towards behaviour change among residents?
  3. What are the barriers to adopting a healthy lifestyle among residents in Eti-Osa East LGA medical metropolitan complex?

 

Organization of Chapters

A critical analysis of pertinent literature from journals, articles, and reports evaluated on the study issue is presented in Chapter 2. It is split into two halves. A overview of the literature on healthy lifestyles, the prevalence of obesity, and attitudes toward obesity is presented in the first section. One theoretical viewpoint of the several theories that explain health-seeking behaviors is presented in the second part. It draws attention to the difficulties residents face in managing their weight, serving as role models, and providing clients and communities with more effective advice on being overweight or obese.

The study technique is described in chapter three. It provides information about the study’s location, methodology, data sources, sampling, and analysis.

The demographics of the study participants are covered in Chapter 4, which also includes the findings based on residents’ beliefs, attitudes, and obstacles to adopting a healthy lifestyle. The six prepared topics from the health belief model are used to present the findings (HBM).

Chapter 5 offers insights and suggestions that can help the DOH and other institutions encourage their employees to lead healthy lifestyles.

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