Management of Rural-urban Migration and Economic Development in Nigeria (Calabar as a Case Study)
This study examined Management of Rural-Urban Migration and Economic Development in Nigeria: The case of Calabar. Relevant data were elicited from both the primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. 50 questionnaires were administered to the residents of calabar. Subsequently, data were analyzed with simple percentage, and presented in frequency tables for easy comprehension. The hypotheses were also tested using chi-square parametric test. The researchers recommended among others that: Government should be in partnership with the people and companies to reduce accommodation problems, government should ensure that materials used for transformers are adequate while making sure that the agricultural extension programmes are well financed in real terms as this will help manage the problems of rural-urban migration and bring about development
1.1 Background of the study
Basically, in Nigeria, urban cities are springing up and people are migrating from the rural areas to urban areas. They have different reasons for migrating from rural areas to urban centres, these reasons may include among others, lack of employment opportunities, lack of infrastructural facilities, educational institution etc. According to Afolayan (1995), rural areas can be easily identified by various criteria, apart from population. Such criteria include the level of infrastructural development i.e. road networks, educational institutions, water supply, electricity, health facilities, communication, etc. Other criteria used include occupation, housing, extent of community planning etc. Ezeah (2005) argued that rural areas refer to geographical areas that lie outside the densely built-up environment of towns, cities and the sub-urban villages and whose inhabitants are engaged primarily in agriculture as well as, the most basic of rudimentary form of secondary and tertiary activities. Rural area, which is the opposite of an urban area, refers to the country side whose population engages mainly in primary production activities like agriculture, fishing, and rearing of livestock (Ele, 2006). Nyagba, (2009) noted that about 90 percent of the rural labour workforce engages directly or indirectly in agriculture.
The burden of rural-urban migration in Calabar is multifaceted. For instance, in examining the management of rural-urban migration and its effect on economic development, has it result to increase in population in the urban areas while the rural areas lack development or at the extreme its explosion. Various other effects are expected to be considered. Population explosion activates the housing challenges both at micro (family) and macro (society) levels. Congestion in households and communities has implications for both the health and psychology of victims. Nigerian cities such as Lagos, Port-Harcourt, Kano, and Onitsha among others are characterized by human traffic, vehicular congestions, environmental pollution, consistent in-migration and spurious expansion of territories to accommodate human additions.
Nigeria is a Country with over 200,000,000 million people (NPC, 2006). Nigeria is also the giant of Africa. Most international organizations and foreign investors find a good market in Nigeria. The oil-boom in the 1970s has deeply affected the economic development of the country and continues to do so as government focuses on oil sector and neglects the agricultural sector which was the prime of the economy and economic development before the oil-boom. Government insensitivity to the plight of the rural communities whose major source of livelihood is agriculture has led to migration of the rural dwellers to urban cities to avail themselves of improved living standard. Nigeria, at independence in 1960, was largely a producer and net exporter of primary products. The six major agricultural products then were cocoa, rubber, palm oil, groundnut, cotton and palm kernel (Idode, 1989). Although there existed mining and quarrying activities, these were of negligible percentage and never acounted for the economy as a whole (Olaloku, 1979). In other words, agricultural produce and raw materials constituted the main income for the country. Specifically, the Nigerian state as an exporter of agricultural goods had 69.4% of its total GDP for the year 1963/64 comprising the six aforementioned agricultural commodities (Olaloku, 1979:8). Rural-Urban migration has led to uneven development of the country. The urban areas are over-populated while the rural areas are densely populated, as young men and women leave the rural areas due to lack of infrastructures, social amenities, employment and economic development of the rural areas. According to Nyagba (2009), rural communities are the most important sectors of the Nigerian economy. There are several reasons to support this position.
Rural-urban migration has affected food production in the state. Most of the basic food stuffs are imported from the northern part of the country even though we have a better climate condition in the eastern region. The inadequate infrastructure and social amenities has also hampered development as most of the programmes and projects are located in the urban areas while the rural people do not benefit from the project. In Nigeria most of the developmental plans are in favour of the urban areas. Business and commercial activities are successful where the market is. The rural areas do not have that market and factors of production are inadequate for economic development in Calabar.
Statement of the problem
Rural-urban migration has affected both the rural areas and urban areas negatively. It has been observed that the great pressure on economic infrastructure and accommodation facilities in terms of residential and office apartment has led to high cost of rent in the urban areas. The migrants are in the urban area for various reasons, either for education or business. Whichever vocation they seek, they are faced with competition. This has led to frustration and psychological problems due to non-accomplishment of goals and objectives of migrating to the urban area. The state government has set up agencies and put in place programmes to address this issue. Most of the agencies responsible for management of the rural-urban migration are cited in the urban centers. Such as Agricultural Development Programme ( ADP), International Fund for Agricultural Development ( IFAD), Ministry of Rural Development among others. They seem to forget the reason behind their establishment; likewise the personnel recruited into these agencies seem to be unwilling to enter the field to gather information that will assist them in execute these projects in the rural areas. The state government while implementing the programmes engages in politics, as they swerve resources for economic development to inconsequential areas, while neglecting other areas like the agricultural sector. Less focus on agricultural sector brings about food scarcity and low agricultural produce for the teeming population. The fall in food production results to food insecurity and importation. The lands that were supposed to be used for agriculture or mechanized farming have been used to build hotels, accommodations, industries and mansions. Furthermore, as attention is being directed to the urban area, major projects and programmes that ought to be directed to the rural areas are diverted to the urban area. Yet these facilities in the urban areas are not properly maintained by some of these agencies. The primary beneficiaries do not gain or participate in such projects. Hence the rural dwellers languish in abject poverty, low life expectancy, unemployment, lack of social amenities, poor power generation and basic infrastructures which hamper economic development
Objective of the study
The following objectives will be assessed;
- To identify the factors that impede on the effective implementation of policy measures put in place to reduce rural-urban migration
- To examine the effect of economic development on management of rural-urban migration in Calabar
- To investigate if the agricultural extension programme has reduced rural-urban migration in Calabar
The following research question will be formulated;
- What are the factors that impede on the effective implementation of policy measures put in place to reduce rural-urban migration?
- What is the effect of economic development on management of rural-urban migration in Calabar?
- Do agricultural extension programme has reduced rural-urban migration in Calabar?
The following research hypotheses will be formulated;
H0: there are no factors that impede on the effective implementation of policy measures put in place to reduce rural-urban migration.
H1: there are factors that impede on the effective implementation of policy measures put in place to reduce rural-urban migration.
H02: there is no effect of economic development on management of rural-urban migration in Calabar.
H2: there is effect of economic development on management of rural-urban migration in Calabar
H03: there is no agricultural extension programme has reduced rural-urban migration in Calabar.
H3: there is agricultural extension programme has reduced rural-urban migration in Calabar
Significance of the study
The study will be very significant to students, lecturers and the government of Nigeria. The study will give a clear insight on the Management of rural-urban migration and economic development in Nigeria (Calabar as a case study). The result of the study will help government to know the important of developing rural communities. The study will also serve as a reference to other researcher that will embark on the related topic
Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study covers Management of rural-urban migration and economic development in Nigeria (Calabar as a case study). the study will be limited to residents in Calabar
The researcher encounters some constraints which limit the scope of the study namely:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Definition of terms
Management: Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a non-profit organization, or a government body. It is the art and science of managing resources.
Rural urban migration: Rural-urban migration is both a socioeconomic phenomenon and a spatial process involving the movement of people from rural areas into cities, either permanently or semi permanently. At present, it occurs mainly in developing countries as they undergo rapid urbanization
Economic development: Economic Development is the creation of wealth from which community benefits are realized. It is more than a jobs program, it’s an investment in growing your economy and enhancing the prosperity and quality of life for all residents. Economic development means different things to different people.[email protected]m.[email protected]