Motivating Factors as Predictors Of Teachers Productivity Among Private School Teachers in Lagos State
The purpose of this study was to assess motivation as a predictor for the performance of teachers; A Case of private secondary Schools in ikeja lagos..A descriptive research design which incorporated quantitative and qualitative approaches was adopted to investigate motivation factors that influence teacher’s performance. A survey was carried out with 148 respondents including ordinary teachers, department teachers and head teachers in private secondary schools in ikeja, lagos. In addition, in depth interviews were carried out with head teachers. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics of SPSS package. The study revealed that the motivation for persons to join the teaching profession was job security and absence of job alternatives but salary was a low consideration. The study further revealed that the majority of teachers were motivated by intrinsic factors, while a small percentage by extrinsic factors despite the fact that salary was inadequate. Furthermore, although not all extrinsic motivation factors (such as free meals, regular salary payment, leave of absence, free accommodation and weekly allowances) were available to teachers, the majority of teachers were concerned more about the inadequacy of current salary levels to meet their basic needs. The study recommends immediate increase the salary of secondary school teachers to match increases in the cost of living, provision of accommodation to teachers and strengthening of supervision.
1.0 Background of the Study
According to Cory (2016), early conceptions assumed that work was an intrinsically undesirable pursuit and that workers naturally sought to do as little as possible which then translated into a sort of carrot-and-stick managerial policy .Motivation guides people‘s actions and behaviors of individuals toward achievement of any goals (Analoui, 2012). In work and other contexts therefore, motivation is often described as being intrinsic or extrinsic in nature (Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2012). Intrinsic motivation, deriving from within the person or from the activity itself, positively affects behavior, performance, and well being (Ryan & Deci, 2012). Extrinsic motivation on the other hand, results from the attainment of external administered rewards and influences, including pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations among others. In contrast to extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation is said to exist when the behavior is performed for its own sake rather than to obtain material or social re-enforcers.
Most recent research work tends to support the view that motivation emanates from inside eand that an individual has his/her own set of motivation forces (Adam 2017, p. 7).. Nevertheless, both sources of motivation are important and it is the duty of the administrators and governing bodies of institutions to carefully identify and address these motivation forces in order to achieve both individual and organization goals.
Teacher motivation has to do with teacher’s attitude to work desire to participate in pedagogical process with school/ college environment as well as teacher’s interest in student’s discipline and control in classroom (Aacha 2010; Bennell 2017). Furthermore, teachers have both intrinsic and extrinsic needs. That is, a teacher who is intrinsically motivated undertakes tasks satisfaction, for the feeling of accomplishment and self actualization. In contrast, an intrinsically motivated teacher may perform activity duty in order to obtain a reward such as salary. Both factors influence teachers’ behavior (Din, 2008). Therefore, the aim of the organization should be to build on and enhance intrinsic motivation for teachers to perform the teaching task effectively, but also at the same time to supply some of extrinsic motivation along the way for college/ school improvement. Despite the importance of extrinsic and intrinsic variables of motivation on teachers’ performance little is known about the influence of these factors on teachers‘ performance in private secondary schools of African countries such as nigeria. This research aims to determine what extent do motivational factors (intrinsic and extrinsic) influence the level of teachers’ performance in secondary schools.
1.1 Problem Statement
There is a general conceptualization that motivation is a correlate of job performance. In particular, Nelson and Quick (2013) contend that a job high in motivation and hygiene factors lead to high performance and few complaints among teachers in public and private secondary schools. The essential stimulus of work motivation is needed and the needs are the driving factors in developing work motivation while working in an organization such as schools (Hoy & Miskel, 2016 ;). Thus, the objective of a person to work is similar to a
teacher who is actually working to earn an income and fulfill his/her needs, with hopes, desires and wishes that can be realized in his workplace.
There are several factors influencing teachers’ work performance in nigerian context and studies by Mulyasa (2016), Rajani (2013) and Swai et al (2017) have indicated that work motivation indeed influences teacher’s work performance. An extensive survey study by Bennell and Mukyanuzi (2015) of 120,000 teachers who work in 13,000 government- funded primary schools right across the country, found that there is a teachers’ motivation crisis in nigeria. First, job satisfaction and motivation levels among primary school teachers in nigeria though not as critically low as is frequently suggested, they are still far below what is required in order to ensure that teachers deliver quality basic education to all children by 2015. Second, the study predicted that given the likely developments in the future, motivation levels would fall quite rapidly over the next five-ten years if no concrete intervention strategies are implemented in both primary and secondary schools. One of the reasons for this dismal performance of secondary school in nigeria in 2011 and 2012 is the absence of adequate motivation of teacher’s especially low salary level and poor working conditions. There are also media reports of deteriorating standards of professional conduct, including serious misbehavior (in and outside of work), and poor professional performance has been observed in some secondary schools and there is a call to examine the effect of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers in the context of current and dynamic environment (Bennell and Mukyanuzi 2015; Swai et al 2017 ).
Hence, this study assesses the effect of motivation factors on teachers’ performance in the nigerian education sector with particular reference to private secondary Schools in the ikeja of Lagos.
1.2 Research Objectives
1.2.1 General Objective
The general objective of this research was to examine effects of motivation factors on teachers’ performance.
1.2.2 Specific Objectives
The specific objective was guided by the following specific objectives
- To establish motivational techniques/tools used by the heads of the schools / Ministry of Education to motivate teachers in Lagos state.
- To determine the views of teachers about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors/ tools
- To determine the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors used by heads of schools and ministry of education in overall teacher’s performance.
1.3 Research Questions
- What is the current motivation tools being applied to teachers in private secondary schools especially in ikeja of Lagos state?
- What are the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence motivation of teachers in private secondary schools?
- What is the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic factors of motivation and their performance in private secondary schools in ikeja of Lagos state
1.4 Delimitation and Scope of the Study
The study examined how intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence motivation of teachers’ performance in private secondary schools in lagos. The study focuses only on government secondary schools in Lagos state and also assess the role of heads of secondary schools in motivating teachers. The study singled out both teachers and heads of schools that are subject of public criticism and they hold key to school performance in secondary schools.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research relates to teachers’ motivation and its impact on their performance in the private secondary schools in Lagos state.
First, schools provide a big source of employment of graduates from various institutions. The results of this study could provide a feedback to the education curriculum such as the inclusion of management courses like motivation so as to provide relevant and effective school performance and productivity in both public and private schools.
Second, teachers play a very significant role in the provision of secondary education (Olulube (2008) and it is argued that the presence of motivation factors in the workplace influences employee’s job performance and productivity .It is expected that the study was unveiled the effects of motivation which are used by heads of secondary schools, Ministry of Education and how teachers perceive motivational tools.
1.6 Definitions of Key Terms
1.6.1 Head of School
Head of school is a person who administers the school with other teaching and non- teaching staff. Accordingly, the head of school is regarded as the chief executive of the school, who is responsible for all that, happens in the school (Oyedeji and Fasasi, 2016).
1.6.2 Employee Motivation
Is “the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.” (Ramlall, 2017).
1.6.3 Intrinsic Motivation
This is an inducement derived from within the person or from the activity itself and, positively affects behavior, performance, and well being (Ryan & Deci, 2012). In contrast to extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation is said to exist when the behavior is performed for its own sake rather than to obtain material or social re-enforcers. In this study, intrinsic motivation of teachers included job satisfaction of derived from teaching, enjoyment of teaching, the challenging and competitive nature of teaching, recognition, career development, control over others and, teaching as one‘s goal in life.
1.6.4 Extrinsic Motivation
Is concerned whenever an activity is done (prompted to take action) in order to attain an outcome that is separable from the activity itself (Ryan & Deci 2012, p. 60). That is, extrinsic motivation results from the attainment of externally administered rewards, including pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations from others (Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2012). In this study, extrinsic motivation of teachers included externally administering rewards like salary, free accommodation, free meals, weekly duty allowances, extra teaching allowances, advance payments in case of financial problems and free medical care among others.
1.7 Organization of the Dissertation
The dissertation was organized into five chapters: Chapter One presents background information to the study, a statement of the research problem, objectives of the study and research questions, justification and significance of the study, scope and delimitation of the
study and conceptual framework. Chapter two is about a review of the extant literature that consists of the theoretical and empirical review on employee motivation and performance. Chapter three explains the research methodology used in this research. Chapter four provides a presentation and discussion of the research findings. Finally, Chapter five presents, the summary, conclusions and recommendations from the study