This project espouses the motivation as an essential ingredient for enhanced productivity. Quite often, management is so much concerned with what it can get out of employees in terms of best job performance; profitability or results. Little attention is paid to the motivation of employees who are human beings and not machines. This slow attitude of management in failing to appreciate the value of employees motivation so that appropriate management techniques can be developed has resulted in a great wastes of human resources.
This dissatisfaction of employees are more often than not; reflected in high labour turnover, frequent complaints, strikes and deterioration in job performance. In order to avoid employees dissatisfaction management should identify the causes and develop a package programme to cater for the maintenance motivation needs of staff.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Motivation is a common word often discussed by people in any given organisation and it shall be discuss in terms of management and employees relationship. Basically, management involves planning, organising, directing, coordinating, budgeting, control etc. (Drunker, 1975 and 1978). The primary objective of all these responsibilities is the achievement of best result. Similarly, management cannot achieve its primary objective in the atmosphere of chaos, unfriendliness and lack of motivation (Humble, 1969: Akpala, 1991). Motivation entails in very simple terms, encouragement shown in cash and/or in kind.
Management cannot operate in isolation of employee employees are human beings and not more tools which are utilized in reckless manner. In a changing economic world, employee have gone beyond being just employees, but have take keen interests in the management of organisational affairs that concern them.
The need to satisfy human wants has led to the study of motivation an individual basis. The inner state of dis-equilibrium of man is forcing him to search and choose strategies to satisfy his needs. In the course of searching and choosing strategies, he processes some abilities which enable him to direct his performance towards his goals. If the performance satisfies the employer, a reward is given to the employees. On the century, the employee will receive punishment, therefore, motivation is the concern of both employer and employee.
In organisations, managers in recent times are worried about the decline in workers productivity. The over increasing external forces of national and international competitions economic, social, technological and political situations have compelled mangers to develop and acquired new levels of organisational efficiency and effectiveness. Having in mind the endless changes in organisations, the managers that are lealing the race to reach the goals of the organisations are encouraging the employees to continue the race by developing ways to stimulate the employee ways to maintain the effective for work force and ways to develop their skills.
Motivating employees leads the functions of managers in any organisations to make policies, many managers take the motivation of employees into consideration in order to get the best out of them. The key to high productivity, high profitability and high viability of any organisations is motivation, so it must not be tampered with.
Also, there is a growing realization that traditional models of motivation do not explain the diversity of behaviour found in organisational settings. While research and theory building in the areas of goal setting, reward system, leadership and job design have advanced our understanding of organisational behaviour, most of this work is built on the premise that individuals act in ways to maximize the value of exchange with the organisations. In addition, some researchers have called attention to the role of dispositions and volitional processes as models of motivation (Kanfer, 1990) others point out that we have a variety of motivation theories that have no unifying theme and are not supported well by the research (Locke and Henne, 1986). In an effort to address these issues, some researchers have turned to self theory as an alternative explanation for organisational behaviour. Specifically, social identity theory (Stryker, 1980, 1986, Teyfel and Tuner, 1985). Self presentation theory (Beach and Mitchell, 1990). Gergen, 1968, Schlenker, 1985) and self efficiency theory (Bendura 1982, 1986) are all fundamentally rotted in the concept of self.
In this research project, I introduce a unifying model of motivation based on theories of self-concept that have been proposed in the sociological and psychological literatures. I will begin by reviewing some traditional theories of motivation, specifically concentrating on their limitation. Then I will present a comprehensive model that propose the self-concept as the underlying force that energise, directs and sustains behaviour across a wide variety of situations. I will also discuss how the self-concept influences behaviour in organisation and present a typology of sources of motivation which can be used as a unifying framework based on the self concept. I will conclude with managerial implications.
1.2 History Of Ifako-Ijaye
Ifako-Ijaye local government was created along with 183 other by the then Head of State late General Sani Abacha on October 1st, 1996. It was carved out of Agege Local Government with its head quarters at Ifako. It is inhabited by over 380,000 people according to 2006 census, majority of who are Yoruba’s. The literacy level of the local government area is about 75% as most of the local government resident are migrant from different parts of metropolitan Lagos and the country in general.
Ifako-Ijaye Local government is bounded in the west by Alimoso, east by Ikeja, south by Agege and the north by Ifo and Adolota (ogun state) local government respectively.
1.3 Statement Of Problem
Generally, motivation encompasses rewards shown in cash and/ or in kind. It is not an empty promise but a demonstration of reality. The socio-economic environment influences the need to motivate employees. Employees are very much interested in their basic need such as food, shelter, clothing and safety up to the ultimate needs of self esteem and actualization. These basic needs are satisfied through monetary and or non-monetary considerations. The prevailing economic situation necessitates that employees real wages have to be enhanced so that they can exercise effective demand for goods and services. The absence of motivation can lead to deterioration in productivity.
In the past, it was argued that the ineptness of management was influenced by the theory that employees were unwilling or unable to perform a good job unless they were coerced or enticed (McFarland, 1976). Nowadays, it is argued that employees are very much willing to perform their jobs well and especially when they are given a sustainable high level of motivation. Generally, the needs system that affects the behaviour of employees in any organisations can be categorised into two main groups, namely maintenance and motivational needs.
1.4 Purpose Of The Study
Motivation is lucrative to organisations and employees. Therefore, the study of this topic will always take our minds to the following points that are enumerated below:
1. To let managers known that supporting employee motivation is a process, not a task.
2. To make managers support employee motivation by using organisational systems.
3. To highlight the significance and seriousness with which management at any level should attach to the issue of motivation of employees.
4. To make managers realise that motivating employees starts with motivating themselves.
5. To improve the flow of interaction between superior and subordinate employees.
6. To ensure a timely achievement of organisational goals.
7. To let manager knows that increased job satisfaction means increased job performance.
8. To create interpersonal relationship among workers.
9. To achieve organisational goals along-side with individual employees objectives.
10. To make managers understand that their motivators are also those of the employees.
11. To stimulate productivity in manufacturing concern.
12. To convey how employee results contribute to organisational results.
13. To boost the corporate image of the organisation.
14. To make managers listen to the problem of employees that are the backbone of the organisation.
15. To equip managers at all levels with the necessary important issues of motivation.
16. To confirm to the managers that money is not he only motivator.
17. To encourage workers to participate in decision making of the organisation and also enrich their jobs.
18. To simplify the workload of managers
19. To make managers create an important relationship between the goals of the organisation and the needs of employees.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
Motivation should be considered as a principal topic of interest by all managers. Motivation must not be treated differently from any other named managers function. The increasing number of internal and external forces of national and international competition, economic, social, technological and governmental conditions have forced management to develop and acquired new techniques and mechanism to maintain levels of organisational efficiency and effectiveness. This required the effective utilization of all resources of the organisation.
Because it is necessary that managers recognise that organisational objectives are not just achieved alone without the full participation of individual. Motivation is therefore a management technique in realizing the goals of the organisation. Individuals need training for efficiency and skill, they need rest, they need functional machine and other input, they also need money to be able to fend for other social and physical needs.
The different views about motivation lead to a number of different conditions:
1. The analysis of motivation should concentrate on factors that arouse or incite a person’s activities.
2. Motivation is process oriented and concerns choice, direction and goals.
3. Motivation also concerns how behaviour is started, sustained or stopped and what kind of subject reaction is present in the individuals.
In addition to the paragraph mentioned above, the researcher enumerates the following vital points.
1. The study will enable management to inculcate the right approach to positive motivation of employees.
2. Motivation will help in maintaining a mutual relationship between management and employees as well as sustaining individual peace.
3. Motivation will increase productivity.
4. Motivation encourages and inspires the workers to perform up to expectation.
5. Motivation will enable a timely goals actualization.
6. Motivation will enable management to exploit the caliber of staff.
7. Motivation will act as a psychological booster to the employee’s morale.
1.6 Formulation Of Hypotheses
The researcher will test the following hypothesis in the course of the research to ascertain their veracity.
Hypothesis 1: There is statistically significant relationship between productivity and motivation.
Hypothesis 2: There is a negative relationship between the workers productivity and level of training.
Hypothesis 3: Close supervision has a positive relationship with productivity.
Hypothesis 4: Motivation of employees has a positive relationship with employees productivity.