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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this work is to make a contribution to the “Abuja grand design” by
proposing a strategy that would facilitate making Abuja feature as a “modern city”. This
proposal is entitled “Policy and Regulatory Framework for Fiber Optic Backbone in
Abuja”. The main import of the strategy is to network every home and business in Abuja
with fiber optics. The city fiber network would serve as a broadband communication
medium to provide essentially unlimited and open communication capacity to all
residences and businesses in Abuja and beyond. High-bandwidth broadband is widely
recognized as a key driver of future economic competitiveness, and is also regarded as a
**facilitator of political discourse and activity. A fiber networking strategy for municipal
public services (education, public health, public safety, etc.) would not only spur up
private-sector innovation and competition, but also place Abuja among the world class
cities, with a potential to ranking among the “international information capitals”.
Comments:
** you don’t quote references in the Abstract
Abstracts are usually ONLY ONE PARAGRAPH, and NOT MORE THAN HALF A PAGE, no matter how
voluminous is the work (thesis).
*** ALL my corrections are put in RED. Look at them and if you agree with them, then CHANGE THEM INTO
BLACK and produce the FINAL COPY FOR THE EXTERNAL EXAMINER.
**** WITH THESE FINAL CORRECTIONS, I THINK THE LONG JOURNEY HAS EVENTUALL BEEN
COMPLETED. GOOD LOCK AND GOD BLESS
NZEAKO, JULY 23/07/2013
x

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………. i
CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL………………………………………………. ii
DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………… iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………. iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………… v
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………. x
CHAPTERONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………….. 1
1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study……………………………………………
1.4 Significance of Study…………………………………………….
1.5 Scope of Study……………………………………………………………
1.6 Outline of Study…………………………………………………………….
CHAPTERTWO
2.0 Literature Review ………………………………………………………………
2.1 Broadband Access…………………………………………………………………….
2.1.1 Creation of Taskforces to leverage Public and Private Expertise……………..
2.1.2 Task incentives for Broadband infrastructure and related expenses…………
2.1.3 Creation of Dedicated fund to attract service provider………………………….
2.1.4 Community and Public Private Partnership Strategy………………………………
CHAPTERTHREE
3.1 Fibre Optic Deployment in Capital Cities in the World
3.1.1 Optical Fiber Systems and Cities………………………………………..
3.1.2 Deploying Citywide Fiber-Optic Networks………………………………..
3.1.3 Fibre Optic Deployment in Abu Dhabi………………………………….
1.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………
1.2 Problem Statement…………………………………………………………
3.1.4 Fibre Optic Deployment in Kigali…………………………………………
3.2 The Need for Fiber Optic Deployment in FCT……………………….
3.2.1 Fiber Optic Deployment in FCT………………………………………….
3.2.2 Advantages of Fiber Optic over Copper…………………………………….
3.2.3 Application of Fiber Optic Network Deployment in FCT………………
CHAPTERFOUR
4.0 Policy and Regulatory Framework of Fiber Optic Deployment in FCT…………….
4.1 Policy Framework……………………………………………………………………….
4.2 Regulatory Framework…………………………………………………………………
4.2.1 The structure of the last mile……………………………………………………………
4.2.2 Roll-Out Strategies and Regulatory Framework for NGAs in Europe………………
CHAPTERFIVE
5.0 Observations and Recommendations…………………………………………………….
5.1 Observations…………………………………………………………………………
5.2 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………….

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Abuja, the capital of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, could be classified as a modern
city. The urban planning and built physical structures are comparable to those of most
contemporary cities of the world, particularly in the sub-Saharan Africa. Compared to
other cities in the country, the urban physical infrastructure, such as transportation,
electricity, communication systems, water, sewage and garbage disposal facilities, could
be rated as above national average. These, coupled with the seat of the central
government in Abuja, are attracting a large influx of population, economic investments,
and all sorts of social and commercial activities from all parts of the country into the
city. Such is the rate of this influx that it is generally feared that Abuja would sooner or
later surpass Lagos in such urban problems as commuting, crime, congestion and
pollution. This fear is heightened by the concentration of government and business
activities in a small number of districts, known as Areas and Zones or Abuja Central
Districts. These districts, which are clustered with high rise administrative structures,
many large commercial malls, and uncontrollable number of “illegal structures”,
constitute less than twenty five percent (25%) of the entire Federal Capital Territory
(FCT), under the jurisdiction of the Federal Capital Territory Authority (FCTA). It was
this fear that prompted the former Minister of FCTA to embark on the demolition of the
alleged “illegal structures”, particularly within the central districts.
At the same time the Honorable Minister came up with a “grand design” to make Abuja
a “modern”, “world class” city. This grand design includes, among other things,
massive development of “satellite cities” in the suburbs of FCT, to decongest the central
districts, the expansion of the physical infrastructure within the central districts and the
development of new road networks and electricity connections between the central
districts and the satellite cities. However, the situation on ground shows that so far this
“grand design” places no emphasis on one of the most prerequisite infrastructure for
world class (modern) cities – the telecommunications infrastructure. As compared to all
other major urban infrastructure investments in Abuja, direct and indirect government
investments in the telecommunications infrastructure are least visible and documented.
Urban infrastructure policies in the city (Abuja) have primarily focused on physical
systems for the movement of people, water, cargo, and vehicles. More specifically, far
more attention has been given to these other physical systems than to communication
systems in policy formulation and regulation in Abuja. This leaves the design,
development and operation of communications networks and services in the city (and
indeed in the whole country) in the hands of a few regulated monopolies and central
government agencies, leaving little or no roles and opportunities for either the FCTA or
the local governments to intervene, whether through land use and “right-of-way”
regulation or capital investment and assistance. The ongoing hue and cry about poor
quality of telecommunications services, particularly the GSM services at Abuja, is a
pointer to the apparent lack of due priority to the telecommunications infrastructure in
the FCT.
The contributions of communications to urban growth have been acknowledged world
wide. Global and historical trends have it that “the rise of the modern city is integrally
linked to advances in communications technology. The operational boundaries of a city
are no longer defined by geography or law, but by the reach of phone lines and
computer networks. This makes present day cities synonymous with communication
centers of the world, often times called “international information capitals” [1]. The
emergence of such international information capitals is not measured by traditional
criteria, such as population size, land area, or road networks for movement of people
and goods. Rather the location of foreign banks, world class hotels and international
organizations, the number of international visitors and long distance telephone calls,
and the provision of innovative, state-of-the art communications services may be a
more barometer of a city’s economic health and vitality [1]. Such cities are intricately
linked to each other through sophisticated telecommunications networks that operate
on an around-the clock basis. The face-to-face activities that occur in these cities have
not been made obsolete by new technology; rather, communications technology has
extended the geographic reach of the individuals and firms that transact business in
these world capitals.
The purpose of this work is to make a contribution to the “Abuja grand design” by
proposing a strategy that would facilitate making Abuja feature as a “modern city”.
This proposal is entitled “Policy and Regulatory Framework for Fiber Optic Backbone
in Abuja”. The main import of the strategy is to network every home and business in
Abuja with fiber optics. The city fiber network would serve as a broadband
communication medium to provide essentially unlimited and open communication
capacity to all residences and businesses in Abuja and beyond. High-bandwidth
broadband is widely recognized as a key driver of future economic competitiveness,
and is also regarded as a facilitator of political discourse and activity [2]. A fiber
networking strategy for municipal public service (education, public health, public
safety, and other public use) and to spur private-sector innovation and competition
would place Abuja among the world class cities, with a potential to ranking among the
“international information capitals”.
1.2 Problem Statement
Abuja has a unique identity. It is both a Federal Capital and seat of central government
and a State, with limited autonomous state status, as well as a State Capital. This
presents a complex, multi-layer policy and regulatory challenges and opportunities in
communications infrastructure development, deployment and management. These
include: separation of power (authority), responsibilities and risks; identification,
definition and differentiation of national versus state and local needs and development
goals; and leveraging the great potential of communications and communications
technologies for socio-economic development. Generally, unlike other physical
infrastructures, such as road networks and transportation, where there are
differentiations in roles and jurisdictions, both the national telecommunications policy
and its regulation are centralized, with a regulatory agency – the Nigerian
Communications Commission (NCC) that grants licenses to telecommunications
operators and services providers and polices the national policy. Centralized in the
sense that the Federal Government seems to be all and all in all issues relating to
telecommunications at the three tiers of government, from local government areas to
states and to the central federal government at Abuja.
This raises the question as to whether states and local governments could have any say
in communications infrastructure development and management in their states and
local government areas (LGAs), respectively, as they do in roads and other utilities
infrastructure, such as pipe water, sewage and electricity transmission netwoks, where
you have such arrangements as federal, state and LGA roads, or national grid and rural
electrification networks, respectively, in co-existence. In other words, could states and
local governments have separate (or be granted limited autonomy in) communications
policies and regulations, which might be tailored to their peculiar circumstances? The
adoption and deployment of fiber optic communication backbone for Abuja is a case in
point: Could there be an FCTA fiber-optic-backbone policy and regulation that might be
separate from but under the umbrella of those of the central Federal Government? What
are the challenges and opportunities for such a framework? These are some of the
questions explored in this study, whereby a number of the above challenges and
opportunities have been identified, defined, differentiated and presented for possible
adoption and exploitation for the growth of the national telecommunications industry
and market and for the benefit of all the stakeholders (FCTA, the Federal Government,
telecoms operators and services providers, and consumers). It is believed that such a
framework could not only enhance the status of Abuja as a truly modern city and an
international information capital, but also serve as a model for other states/LGAs in the
Federation.
1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study
Theaimofthisresearchistodevelopguidelines and present good practices to
enable those in government and authority formulate an appropriate policy
and regulations for the development, deployment and operation of a Fiber
Optic Backbone for the Federal Capital City, Abuja. Specifically, the objectives ofthis
studyare:
1. To proposea Framework (guidelines and good practices) for the Formulation
and Regulation of a Policy for Fiber Optic Backbone in Abuja
2. The proposed framework includes the identification of
· the infrastructure to support effective communication system
in Abuja.
· the best formof broadband communication medium, and
· communications infrastructure development strategies asimplemented in
other capital cities of the world
1.4 Significance of Study
Thisstudyprovidesareferenceforanyoneinterestedin(or charged with the
re spons ibility of) formulat ing a policy and regulat ions for
thede ve lopment , deployment and ope rat ion of a Fiber Optic Backbone in
any capital city like Abuja. This includes, but is not limited to:
• Policy makers in the telecom sector
• Town and capital city planners
• Consultants, and other professionals in telecommunication
• Researcherson telecom policy and regulations, with a focus on
Fiber Optic Backbones in big cities like Abuja
• Regulatory Agencies in the communication sector
1.5 Scope of Study
Thefocusofthisstudyisonp r o p o s i ng a f r amewo r k f o r a Policy and
Regulations for the development, deployment and operation of a Fiber Optic
Backbone in Abuja.The main import of the framework is to network every home and
business in Abuja with fiber optics.
1.6 Outline uf Study
The workhas been organized into five chapters as follows: 1. Introduction,2.
Literature Review, 3.Fibre Optic Deploymentin Capital Citiesin the World 4.
Policy and Regulatory Framework of Fiber Optic Deployment in
FCT,and5.Observations and Recommendations.

 

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