Political Marketing In Nigeria ( Case Study of APC and PDP )
This research work was undertaken to investigate the application of marketing in politics with the focus on PDP and APC. It is the contention of this study that marketing plays a vital role in politics. The research carefully identifies how politicians were able to carry their political activities to the grass-root level of various communities with the aid of market segmentation. The researcher also went further to examine why the parties were successful in some area. The data of this study were collected through questionnaire and oral interview, where the questionnaire forms the major method of data collection. The simple random method was used to select the respondents of the study. Based on the above findings, the following recommendations were made for implementation. Politicians should carry out their campaign exercise to the grass root of every community with the aid of political market segmentation.
1.1Background to the Study
For those who have real experience of politics, it is a service of exciting and interesting adventures. And the ultimate aim of political marketing is the attainment of power. In Nigeria politics is a game of survival of the fittest.
Political marketing covers a wide spectrum marketing which is the identification anticipation and satisfaction of customer’s requirement in a profit manner is the peg on which politics revolves; it is purely non-business organization which is not out for the purpose of profit maximization.
In Nigeria political marketing has been a controversial subject for the past decades. This has become one of the challenges facing marketing in developing countries. Political marketers believed that Nigeria is not ripe enough for this type of game. In buttressing their argument, they pointed out that in Nigeria, the number of educated persons politically are to infinite and that politics will not be successful.
According to such critics marketing philosophy is very sophisticated and two abstract to be appreciated in a developing economy. Also a developing economy being a country of poor technology, production is more of a problem of marketing. From the campaign of 1979, 1983 and 1999, it has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that political marketing has woken from deep slumber in Nigeria in 1979 and 1983 election. Promotional mix was used by different political parties to bring their philosophy to grass root level of every community. During the campaign exercise, NPN and UPN, which were in forefront took the advantage of good market segmentation to beat their political contestants to the third fourth and fifth positions. After many years of military rule during which individual freedom democracy and rule of law were severally and fundamentally damaged the challenges facing the nation as it advances into 21st century are the recreation of civil political institution. The reconciliation of our various peoples, the relenting of the spirit of unity and brotherhood in the nation and revitalizations of the powers of the people to build a prosperous industrial democracy.
As a matter of fact APC was not left out in marketing her manifestos known to the people of Nigeria. The party pinned herself to five cardinal point programmes and these programmes were:
a. Free education at primary school
b. Qualitative medical care at subsidized rate
c. Qualitative education at secondary tertiary level
d. Computerizing of tertiary institution library
e. Agricultural development
Often, the philosophies of these political parties are just propaganda and paper work in most case contradict the real control measure of the party when in government. Therefore political marketing is the type in which the weight of politics rest.
1.2Statement of Research Problem
Political marketing campaign is like diplomacy. As most diplomat said it you don’t have either the facts or law on your self then simply shout what Obasanjo’s political opponents were trying to do when to shout for this contribution to democracy generally and in education particularly were manifested beyond dispute.
Political marketing is get tap root in Nigeria some of the politicians have little or no sound education which will bring them to the stage of appreciation and implementing marketing techniques in politics.
We have come to an era where political marketing it of paramount important to politicians.
In this study, it is necessary to bring out the activities of each of the political party and how with the aid of marketing segmentation, it was able to carry out the activities to the grass root lf the community.
We are equally out to figure out the area where these activities were successful and what actually contributed to the failure of some of the political parties in some area.
1.3Purpose/Objectives of the Study
In introduction, we look at political marketing as the 3 peg which it revolves.
1. To identify marketing activities in politics.
2. To look at the significance of marketing politics.
3. Another objective of this research is to investigate and;
4. Research the other methods than political marketing.
1.4Central Research Questions
The purpose of this study is to examine:
1. Why political marketing is important to politicians in Nigeria
2. To know why politicians use thugs and violence as means to make voters to vote for them and
3. That why we think marketing strategies are relevant in the political scene.
1.5Formulation of Hypothesis
Hypothesis in its simplest form is a guess, it is an proven preposition that tentatively explains certain facts of phenomena.
Hypothesis is a statement of assumption about the nature of the world. The decision to carryout this research is to show certain facts that will serve as a yardstick towards the realization of the following expectation.
Ho: Political marketing is not of importance to politicians in Nigeria.
Hi: Political marketing is of importance to politicians in Nigeria.
1.6Scope of the Study
This research work embraces all the 36 States in Nigeria.
Because of the short time and space with which to complete and submit these research work and also because of geographical location of each of the State we have to divide Nigeria into six market segments, these six market segments are:
1. North South Zones which comprises of the core North, like Kano and Kaduna etc.
2. North Central zones which comprise the middle belt states like Niger and Kogi State.
3. North East zones which comprise of State like Maiduguri and Zamfara States.
4. South West zones which comprises of the Niger-Delta State, like Delta and Edo State.
5. South East zone which comprises of the Igbos such as Imo, Anambra and Enugu State.
6. South-South zone which comprises of the Yorubas States.
For the purpose of market segmentation, each of the zones is taken as a distinct market from the other.
1.7Significance of the Study
The significance of this study cannot be over-emphasized.
1. It will enable the politicians to identify and use marketing techniques in politics instead of tugged or violence means to influence the electorate.
2. It will enlighten marketing students to know that marketing is not restricted to business organization alone for ever.
3. This study will serve as reference material to other researchers who may want to make further research the area under study.
4. It can be a course of study in our higher institution as we have political science in order to us to sanitize the political environment of the society from violence.
5. For the markets, it will bring about employment and your service will be needed to give marketing system methods or strategies for the attainment of the party political goals.
1.8Limitations of the Study
This research work will be limited to political marketing in Nigeria as well as the assessment.
Some of the questionnaires prepared and distributed to respondents were not all returned so that a complete analysis of the respondents be presented.
Finally, a full analysis and access to essential documents articles and soon were not made available to the researcher.
1.9Operational Definition of Terms
a.Marketing: According to Kotler in his book marketing management. the millennium edition (2007). Marketing
Marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and what though exchange process.
The American Marketing Association defines marketing as the process of planning and executing the conception, paring production and distribution of ideas goods and services to create exchange that satisfy individual and organization goals. Dictionary of Marketing Terms (1992).
b.Politics: Nnoli (2000) in depriving politics has this to say politics is about power influence interest and value. It is refers to all these activities which are directly or indirectly associated with the seizure of state power the consolidation of state power and use of state power.
c.Political Marketing: Orsaah (2002) in his article on the emergence of political marketing in Nigeria sees functions and the use of marketing system methods or strategies for attainment of political goals.
He continues that specifically political marketing is the use of marketing techniques in politics to influence the voting (buying) decision of the electorate (consume).
d.Aspirant: This is a person or individual seeking political office before and during primaries (Orianwote, 2000).
e.Candidate: This is a person or individual nominated after the conduct of primaries to represent a particular political party in the election proper (Orianwote, 2000).
f.Campaign: This is defined as a carefully planned and coordinated series of promotional effort build around a candidate.