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Download this complete Project material titled; Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Gram Negative Bacteria In The Urine Of University Students with abstract, chapter 1-5, references and questionnaire. Preview chapter one below

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ABSTRACT
In order to access the prevalence and sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens, 60 midstream urine samples from students of Caritas University were investigated using cultural methods. Samples were examined microscopically and cultured in blood agar and Macckonkey agar. Disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing. Of the 60 urine samples 48 yielded significant growth with a prevalence rate of 80%. It was observed that females were more infected than the males with a prevalence rate of 56.70% and 43.30% respectively under the ages of 18-25yrs.Escherichia coli was the most predominant. The isolates were very sensitive to Gentamycin, Nitrofurantoin and Ofloxacin which were the (most sensitive) and the most resistant were Tetracycline, Cortrimozol, Cephalexin and Ampicillin. Therefore, Nitrofurantoin, Gentamycin, Ofloxacin were strongly recommended for the treatment of UTI as indicated in the study.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Gram negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain their crystal violet dye in the gram staining protocol. They are differentiated by their cell wall structure. The following characteristics are displayed by gram negative bacteria as follows
  • Cytoplasmic membrane
  • Thin peptidoglycan layer(much thinner than gram positive)
  • Outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide outside the peptidoglycan layer
  • Porin exists in the outer membrane, which acts like pores
  • There is a space between the layer of peptidoglycan and the secondary cell membrane, called the periplasmic space
  • If present, flagella have four (4) supporting rings instead of two
  • No techoic acid or lipopolysaccharide

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