1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Prevalence can be simply define as a number of persons sick or becoming sick of a certain condition in a population used as a numerator at a define time. (John I. Chaveh, 2013).
The word diabetes mellitus came from Greek and it means a siphon”. Aretus the Cappadocian, a Greek Physician during the second century A.D., named the condition diabainein. He described patients who were passing too much water (polyuria). Like a siphon, the word became “diabetes” fromt eh English adoption of the Medieval Latin diabetes in 1675. Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means “honey”.
Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary Six Edition defines diabetes mellitus as any disorder of metabolism causing excessive thirst and the production of large volumes of urine.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which the persons has high blood glucose. Either because insulin production is insufficient or because the body’s cell do not respond properly to insulin or both. By Christian Norguist in April, 2010, revised in July 2012 (Gobsle Com). Anyam A. Ordedoo 2000-2008) review diabetes mellitus as a metabolIc disorder due to relative deficiency of insulin in the body, lack of insulin whether absolute or relative affect the
metabolism of carbohydrate, the accumulation of sugar leads to it’s appearance in the blood and then in the urine.
Diabetes mellitus is a acute or chronic disease that affect many as 16 million American for reasons that are not yet clear, diabetes mellitus is increasing in our population to the point where public health authorities are calling diabetes an epidemic requires immediate attention of the 16 million peoples with diabetes about one third of them don’t know. Every year 8,000,000 additional cases are diagnosed.
Diabetes mellitus the most common endocrine disease occur when there is absence of insulin or, rarely impairment of insulin activity insulin resistance varymg degrees of disruption of carbohydrate and fat metalbolism occurs incidence of type one (1) and types (2) diabetes is increasing Worldwide. Ross Wilson (2010).
Diabetes mellitus affects over six percent of population now and it is projected that nearly nine percentage of American will have diabetes by the year 2016. Health cost for diabetes are estimated to be nearly S100 billion per year in the US diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United State(Alaribe H.A. 2009).
In the same way prevalence of diabetes mellitus among aged peopled, a case Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area Taraba State is no exceptional.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among aged and youth a case study of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State is a challenge to all health provided especially the corn munity health who are in the grassroots and the government.
Diabetes mellitus in the lived aged occur in to two broad areas, types 1 and pes 21 diabetes accounts for about 5 to 10 percent of all diagnosed diabetes.
So it is less common than types 2. It is an autoimmune disease, which means that your imnune system the body system for fighting infection has gone haywire and it destroy the cell in your pancreas that produce insulin and in types 2 diabetes are called non-insulin dependent diabetes. Mellitus of adult onset diabetes. This type of 2 diabetes mellitus is different from type 1, diabetes in what the body make insulin efficiency.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes, accounting for 90 – 95 percent of all diabetes. It is usually developing after the age of 40 years. Types 2 diabetes is a progressive disease that can cause severe complication such as heart disease, kidney disease, loss of limb amputation and loss of vision (blindness) (Alaribe H.A, 2009).
In view of this researcher wants to dig out the underlying cause of diabetes mellitus among age people a case study of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE
To determine prevalence of diabetes mellitus among aged people a case of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area.
1.3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE
Specifically it aimed at;
1. To determine the main cause of diabetes mellitus among aged and other a case study of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State.
2. To identify the percentage of the aged people and other youth of 27 years at Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area Taraba State who suffer from chronic diabetes mellitus
3. To find out whether the socio-econornic status of parents influence the level of food intake of aged and other youth people in the study area
4. To find out how to prevent diabetes mellitus among aged and other youth of 27 year a case study of Yitti ward Lau LGA, Taraba State.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the main cause of diabetes melitus among aged people and other of 27 years and above a case study of Yitti ward Lau LGA Taraba State?
2. What percentage of the aged people suffers from chronic diabetes mellitus?
3. What are the preventive measure to prevalence of diabetes of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State?
4. How does socio-economiC status ofparent influence the level of food intake people and other youth in the study area?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of this study will help the parents, the family, the individual health provide planners and government to understand the severity of diabetes mellitus among aged and other youth a case study of Yitti ward. Local Government Area, Taraba State with the view of planning curative, control and preventive measure.
1.6 DELIMITATION (SCOPE) OF THE STUDY
The study is limied to prevalence of diabetes mellitus among a case study of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State ofboth males and females. It does not involve children and adolescent.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
METABOLISH: The sun of all the chemical and physical change that take place within the body and enable it continued growth and functioning (Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary)
CARBOHYDRATE: These are organic compound that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen generally with a ration of 2: 1 of hydrogen to oxygen, atoms (Gemson 2007).
OBESITY: Is a condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body mostly in the subcutaneous tissue.
DIABETES MELLITUS: Is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in which sugar in the body are not oxidized to producer energy due to the lack of thr pancreatic hormones Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary (Sixth Edition, 2002).
HYPOGLYCAEMIA: A deficiency of glucose in the blood stream, causing muscular weakness and in-coordination, mental confusion and sweating (Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary).
HYPERGLYCAEMIA: An excess of glucose in the blood stream (Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary).
GLUCOSE: Is a simple sugar containing six carbon atoms.
POLYURIA: Is the production of large volumes of urine which is dilute and of a pale.
PANCREAS: Is a compound gland, about 15cm long, that lies behind the stomach, one end lies in the curve of the duodenum, ihe other end lies in the curve of the duodenum, the other end touches the spleen.
INSULIN: Is a protein hormone, produced in the pancreas by the beta cells of the islets of langerhans, that is important for regulating the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
RENAL FAILURE: This is due to diabetes nephropathy which affect the kidney and is a common cause of death in those with diabetes Ross & Wilson (11 Edition, 2010).
ISLET: Is a small group of cells that is structurally distinctj from the cells surrounding it.
RETINOPATHY: Is any of various disorders of the retina resulting in impairment.