Prevalence of hydatidosis in cattle and camels slaughtered in Maiduguri and Gashua abattoirs base on serological test and present of cysts was carried out in September to November 2012, and April to July 2013. Gross examination of lungs, liver, heart and kidneys for hydatid cyst was carried out by palpation on randomly selected animals and blood samples were collected for serology. Protein profiles of hydatid cyst fluid in camels were analysed using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A ten year retrospective study at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital was carried out to determine records of human hydatidosis. A total of 805 animals were sampled; 560 from Maiduguri and 245 from Gashua, four hundred and sixty four (464) of the samples were camels while 341 were cattle. The overall prevalence of cystic was 13.8% (14.1% in Maiduguri and 13.1% in Gashua) and seroprevalence was 40.5% (44.8% in Maiduguri and 30.6% in Gashua). Maiduguri had the highest cyst prevalence in camels (25%), then Gashua (19%), while the lowest cyst prevalence (1%) was recorded in cattle slaughtered in Gashua. The highest seroprevalence (53%) was recorded in Maiduguri camels and the lowest (24.3%) was in cattle in Gashua. The association between location and age with either cyst prevalence or seroprevalence of hydatidosis was significant (P=0.00). There was no significant association (P>0.05) between cystic prevalence and seroprevalance with the sex of the animals. Gross examination of visceral organs showed that lungs and liver had cysts the heart, spleen and kidney had no cyst. The liver had the highest number of cysts 77(9.6%) and while the lungs had 51(6.3%). A total of the 50 cysts were collected, 46 from camels and 4 from cattle. 54% (27/50) were small cyst and 46(23/50) were medium cyst. 36% of
the cysts were fertile, 40% were infertile and 24% were calcified. The SDS-PAGE analysis of camel hydatid cysts fluids revealed protein bands at 64kda, 91kda, 160 kda and 200kda molecular units. While the purified revealed bands at 64kda, 91kda, 120kda, 160kda, and 200kda corresponding to antigen 5 and 160kda of a thermo stable antigen B. There was no record of human hydatidosis in the hospital records during the retrospective study. In conclusion, hydatidosis is prevalent in cattle and camels in Maiduguri and Gashua; location and age were highly associated with infection and no human record of hydatidosis was found in records of selected Hospitals within the study area. It was recommended that serological studies be conducted more frequently alongside post mortem findings in other states and in different species of farm animals.
Hydatidosis also called Echinococcosis or Echinococcal disease is a parasitic disease of tape worm, it belongs to the genus Echinococcus. The disease is one of the major zoonotic helminthosis of medical and public health importance (Carmena et al., 2005; Ahmad et al., 2017). Larval infection is characterized by long-term growth of metacestode (hydatid cyst) in the intermediate host (Zhang et al., 2003). Out of the several species within the genus Echinococcus currently considered valid, the three major species of medical and public health importance are; E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. vogeli (Schatz et al., 1995; Jenkin et al., 2005). Of the three, E. granulosus is considered the most important species due to its worldwide distribution and impact in both human and animal health (Romig, 2003; Kebede et al., 2009). Echinococcus multilocularis is rare but most virulent while E. vogeli is very rare (Dandan, 2014). The members of the genus Echinococcus have indirect, two host life cycles. The adults are tapeworms usually 3–7mm and live in the small intestine of the definitive host, usually wild and domestic canids, and the fluid-filled hydatid cyst (metacestodes) develop in the internal organs, mainly liver and/or lungs of the intermediate host (usually herbivores or omnivorous) such as goats, sheep, cattle and camels (Soulsby, 1986; Jenkins et al., 2005).
Humans are accidental intermediate and dead-end host (Jasseen et al., 1990; Siracusana et al., 2012) acquiring infection through consumption of food or water contaminated with
cestode eggs (Craig et al., 1991; Torgerson et al., 2003; Carmena et al., 2005). Dogs become infected by eating infected visceral organs of the intermediate host.
The development of large fluid-filled cyst in the lungs, liver and other internal organs of the intermediate host leads to significant economic losses to the meat industry through reduction in carcass weight, decrease in hide value, decrease in milk production and reduced fertility (Lightower, 1989; Luka et al., 2009). In Ethopia, a total annual economic loss from organ condemnation and carcass weight loss due to hydatidosis was estimated at 1,791,925.89 Ethiopian Birr (N24,757,394.00) in 2000 (Torgerson, 2003; Regessa et al.,2010) and 1,848,849.76 ETB (N25,543,859.00) in the year 2015 (Nasr and Pal, 2016). In Maiduguri, Nigeria, the weight in Kilogram and monetary value (Naira) of condemnable cattle liver due to hydatidosis was estimated at 268kg and N93,800.00 respectively in 2006 (Biu et al., 2006).
The global economic loss due to cystic echinococcusis was estimated to be over 2 billion US$ in 2006 (Budke et al., 2006). The World Health Organization (WHO) fact sheet updated April 2016, reported an estimated cost of 3 billion US$ for treating cases and losses in the livestock industry.
The distribution of the disease is common in areas with high dog population where humans maintain close contact with dogs, and where there are various animals which act as intermediate hosts (Mohammed and Nezhat, 2004; Abdul Latif et al.,2013). Other factors such as agricultural practices, poor disposal of cyst from infected livestock, lack of adequate control policy, uncontrolled movement of animal and difficulty in early
diagnosis also enhance the distribution of the disease (Dada and Belino, 1978; Elberbri et al., 2015).
Diagnosis of the disease is based on combination of imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computerized axial tomography and x-rays; immunodiagnosis such as complement fixation, agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and molecular biology methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (Lightower et al.1984; Sbihi et al., 1996; Kittelberger et al., 2002). Fusion of techniques became necessary because routine parasitological, haematological and biochemical test do not offer proper diagnosis of hydatidosis (Khuroo, 2002). Furthermore, abattoir records do not give adequate information due to the practice of home slaughter and the uncooperative attitude of butchers during meat inspection in some endemic areas. Thus abattoir records which should be strictly regulated are important in the surveillance and control of hydatidosis (Dada et al., 1981).
The disease is endemic in the Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, and African countries such as like Ethopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda (Macpherson et al., 1986; Tergut, 2001). China, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Australia are also endemic areas (Wang et al., 2013; Torgerson, 2013).
In Nigeria, prevalence of 26.2%, 53% and 6.3% in Sokoto (Ogunsun et al., 2000; Okolugbo et al., 2014; Abdullahi et al., 2011). In Kano, Luka et al. (2009) and Rabiu and Jegede (2010) recorded prevalence of 38.9% and 20.5% respectively. Studies on the prevalence of the disease are under reported, as they are mostly based on post mortem
findings and abattoir records (Ajogi et al., 1995) with the exception of the work by Luka et al. (2009) and Okolugbo et al. (2014) who used Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The lack of proper meat inspection at the abattoirs, the inability to locate small lesions in the liver or lungs of animals and the un-corporative attitude of butchers during meat inspection, often give inconclusive results and subsequently poor knowledge of the disease (Garba and Maigandi, 1995; Biu, et al., 2006; Abdullahi, 2011). In Northern Nigeria, some of the few documents on the prevalence of hydatidosis include the documentation of Luka et al. (2009) and Okolugbo et al. (2014). This study was undertaken in order to provide baseline data for the assessment of the impact of the disease on the health of cattle and camels in the study area using physical examination in conjunction with the enzyme linked immunorsorbent assay (ELISA).
1.1 Statement of Research Problem
Studies on hydatidosis have over the years depended on physical examining of cysts in organs of slaughtered animals with the resultant limitation of examinating live animals for the disease. This limitation has caused poor assessment of prevalence of hydatiodosis such that available data are unreliable.
1.2 Justification of the Study
In Northern Nigeria, not much is documented on the prevalence of hydatidosis in cattle and camels which are readily available and cheap sources of meat, milk, hides and means of farming and transport (Kadim et al., 2008; Tarefa, 2014). Also, studies on the prevalence of the diseases are mostly based on post mortern findings and abattoir records.
This study is to broaden the scope of research on hydatidosis through the provision of data needed to define the prevalence status and public health significant of the disease
using physical examination in conjunction with the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
The aim of the study is to evaluate the status of hydatidosis in camels and cattle slaughtered in Maiduguri and Gashua abattoirs and retrospectively in humans using hospital records.
The objectives of the study are to determine:
i. the prevalence of hydatid cyst in organs of cattle and camels slaughtered in Maiduguri and Gashua abattoirs.
ii. the age and sex specific prevalence of hydatidosis based on visceral inspection (cystic prevalence) of cattle and camels in Maiduguri and Gashua abattoirs.
iii. the antigenic profiles of hydatid cyst fluids from camels and cattle collected in the study area.
iv. the seroprevalence of hydatidosis in cattle and camels slaughtered in Maiduguri and Gashua abattoirs in relation to age and sex.
v. the prevalence of hydatidosis in humans through restrospective study of hospital records in selected general hospitals in Maiduguri and Gashua.
i. The cystic prevalence of hydatidosis in organs of cattle and camels in the study area is low.
ii. The cystic prevalence of hydatidosis is not associated with age and sex of cattle and camels.
iii. The antigenic profile of hydatid cyst fluids from camels and cattle are the same.
iv. The sero prevalence of hydatisosis is low and not influence by age and sex of animals.
v. Human hydatidosis does not occur in the study area.
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