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  • Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Pages: 65
  • Chapter 1 to 5
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ABSTRACT

Cultural and educational functions of public service broadcasting come at a fortuitous time, as the changing environment of broadcasting is on various agendas. At the heart of this is the question of the present and future status of public service broadcasting. Major changes have taken place in the political economy of the media and the world economy at large, technological advancement has resulted in privatization and commercialization of the media. In most societies where these changes have taken place, public service broadcasting has been threatened by the rapid rise of commercial institutions, resulting in stiff competition for audiences. This study will examine the extent to which the adoption of the privatization and commercialization of electronic media in Nigeria has impacted the broadcast industry. The study uses a combination of document analysis, secondary literature and qualitative interviews.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

Project Topics

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Broadcasting in Nigeria, entered a new era with the decision of the federal government is allow private ownership of radio and television stations after more than 50 years of its advent in Nigeria. Privatization is the process which government either partly or wholly transfers equity investment of ownership in a business enterprise to private investors. Commercialization, on the other hand is defined as the reorganization of enterprises such that they could operate enterprises wholly or partially owned by the federal government without relying on government subvention.

It could be recalled that since the advent of radio and television in 1932 and 1959 respectively, government had hitherto reserved its ownership to either state or federal government.

Radio broadcasting started in 1932, when re-diffusion services began in Nigeria. This re-diffusion started in Lagos with the distribution of programs, which originated from the British Broadcasting co-operation (BBC) in London. This was part of the overseas services of the BBC. From the Lagos studio, the programs were distributed to various listening boxes when subscribers who had paid a small subscription fee for this purpose received them. Because of the popularity of this system, it was eventually expanded to include stations outside Lagos, Abeokuta, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ijebu-ode, Jos, Kaduna, Kano, Port Horcourt and Zaria. When in 1951 and 1952 the Nigerian Broad casting service (NBS) was established by the federal government and the major re-diffusion stations were converted into fully operational stations, radio had finally arrived in Nigeria.

Unlike radio which began in Nigeria through federal government initiative, television broadcasting began in the country through regional initiative. This was in October 1959 when the government of the former Western Region started the first television service in both Nigeria and Africa- the Western Nigerian television (WNTV). The following year, on 1st October 1960, the former Eastern Region followed the example of the West by establishing the Eastern Nigeria Television (ENTV) in Enugu.

The federal government got round to establishing its own television service when it started the Nigeria television service (NTS) in partnership with the NBC- International of America, in April 1962 in Lagos. In the same year, the government of the former Northern region also started its own television service called Radio Television Kaduna (RTV). The regional government and a British television company jointly owned this.

The federal government television which was under a management agreement with an American company, continued and was confined to the federal capital, and soon came under the Nigerian Broadcasting co-operation, (NBC) when the management contract with the American was determined.  The advent of television brought in its wake a new dimension to broadcasting in Nigeria. The creation of states in Nigeria meant that the new state administrations could set-up television networks in their states.

The former government of the mid-Western state in 1973 went ahead by establishing the Mid-Western Television (MTV) now NTA Benin, Benue plateau television (BPTV) followed in 1974.

In 1975, the federal military government announced its intention to take over all television stations in the country. It then set-up machinery within the federal ministry of information to give effect to this plans.

At this time, ten stations-Ibadan, Enugu, Kaduna, Lagos, Benin, Jos, Port-Harcourt, Kano, Sokoto and Owerri (Aba) in that order, had been set-up.

The Nigerian television authority was finally inaugurated in May, 1977. Although Decree 24 or 1077, which established it, was promulgated in March 1077 but took effort from April 1976. By that Decree, the NTA became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in the country. Indeed, the federal government had began to fund all the stations from April 1, 1976, when networking of news also commenced on Nigerian Television, vea domestic satellite (Domstat). By December 1978, there were scheduled broadcast from every state capital in the country.

Between 1959 and June, 1992 broadcasting organizations had been part and parcel of public service. The industry was subjected to high degree of control and interference by the government and was used as public service instrument designed to propagate government activities- the broadcasting stations were, therefore, committed to giving air time to government agencies which have no commercial value.

This monopoly of government ownership of the electronic media was sustained due to the following assumptions. Among them was the argument put forward by a one-time information minister, prince Tony Momsh, that privatization and commercialization is likely to affect the unity of the nation as well as our national security.

Again Chief Alex Akinyele, also a one-time information minister said that since Nigerians were not starved of information by reason of the non-existence of such private electronic media, it could not be said to constitute a priority for the common man. He feels rather very strongly that “private television/radio is patently dangerous” and that it is a costly diversion. Furthermore, there has also been the supposition that Nigeria is not ripe enough to own private electronic media.

But the advantages of a privatized media outweigh that of government ownership. This ranges from broadcasting service characterized by high degree of aggressiveness, pragmatism, expansionism and technical competence to placing top priority on the generation of more revenue maximization of profit and be in a comfortable position to execute its programs.

COMMISSION’S BROAD OBJECTIVES

Preamble: Broadcasting is a medium of communication through which the individual share in the world around and beyond his immediate environment. By means pf broadcasting every Nigerians should partake in ideas, ideals and experience that will enrich his life and help him live in complex and dynamic, yet humane society.

Broadcasting in Nigeria should be made to influence societal value positively and in so doing improve and strengthen the social, cultural, economic, political and technological fabric of the nation. The major responsibility of broadcasting to inform, educate and entertain shall not be at the expense of national interest unity and cohesion of Nigeria’s diverse social, economic, political and religious configuration. No broadcasting shall encourage, or include crime, or lead to disorder or to be offensive to public feelings or contain an offensive reference to any person, alive or dead or generally, be disrespectful to human dignity.

The objectives of broadcasting in Nigeria social objective: Educate people irrespective of their educational background. In conclusion, we want to X-ray the viability, prospects, problems and sustainability of this unique endeavor.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Addressing the inaugural meeting of the presidential consultative committee on privatization the economic in Abuja the area concern, according to him includes: democratization, globalization, linearization and technological privatization and commercialization of the state owned enterprise.

Consequently, the need arose to place the average Nigeria who ultimately private the basic for corporation survival (profit) at the center of the activities, to produce goods and services in an economic sense.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The study aims to investigate the impact of commercialization on media programming and whether with the adoption of the Privatization and commercialization act, Anambra broadcasting service still plays its role as a public service broadcaster.

1.4       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H01: There is no impact of commercialization on media programming.

1.5              SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

Because of its importance and sensitive nature, many Nigerians both within and outside the country had through writing and critical discussions, expressed their feelings with regards to the need for a fully privatized and commercialized broadcasting media in the country.

Many Nigerians are of the opinion that a privatized media will ginger competition in the industry, thereby breaking the long government’s monopolistic hold on it.

Peter Enahoro a veteran journalist and publisher in one of his classical write-ups in the dailies made a clarion call that this nation is due for a fully privatized and commercialized private media. He was of the idea that information management and dissemination should not be the exclusive preserve of the government.

He maintained that privatizing the broadcast media would provide avenues for cross-informational flow but would also boost the already battered broadcast industry as well as helping to interpret Nigeria and Africa to the world and vice versa.

However, some of our ex-information ministers had strongly opposed this idea. Among them are prince Tony Momoh and Alex akinyele.

Prince Tony Momoh in his contribution posited that it would most likely affect the unity of this nation as well as our national security. His immediate successor, chief Alex Akinyele argued that privatization and commercialization of electronic media is “patently dangerous”! And that it is a costly diversion”2. Just to name a few.

The study of this topic is very important and because of its newness we intend to highlight on some of those benefits likely to accrue to the industry, the country, the broadcast professionals and we shall equally X-ray the suitable atmosphere under which the industry can thrive.

It is therefore, our hope that through this work, we will help the audience, the authorities and proprietors of the privatized media; understand the need for a vibrant and promising electronic media.

1.6       SCOPE AND LIMITATION

It is hardly the case that any research makes a complete study of problems, let alone a project like this one, which is consideration limited by timed, space and resource.

Given that privatization is a relatively new phenomenon it has continued to provoke intense controversy as to acceptable application and inherent implication of such public policies. The theme of this study is to find out the impact of privatization program on electronic media in Nigeria.

The study was limited by academics endeavors, financial and time constraints.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Public Service Broadcasting – There have been numerous attempts at defining the concept of ‘public service broadcasting’, however, the definition of what is precisely meant by the concept remains unclear. An ideal model of public service broadcasting as Garnham defines it is, “a means of providing all citizens, whatever their wealth or geographical location, equal access to a wide range of high quality entertainment, information and education, and as a means of ensuring that the aim of the program producer is the satisfaction of a range of audience tastes rather than only those tastes that show the largest profit” (Garnham, 1983:13-14). The concept will be discussed in detail in chapter 2 (Section 2.1, pp11-13).

Commercialization – “A process by which media structures and contents come to reflect the profit seeking goals of media industries and are governed by market considerations” (McQuail, 1994). The concept will be discussed in detail in chapter 2 (Section 2.3, pp32-37).

 

Public Sphere – The public sphere in this study is defined as “a space where all interest groups interact with one another to discuss issues concerning the society as a whole. It is a public space for interaction among citizens in the political processes” (Curran, 2000). This concept will be discussed in detail in chapter 2 (Section 2.2, pp26-27).

1.8 Organization of the study

This study was organized into five chapters. Chapter one was introduction, two literature review, three methodology, four presentation of results and five was conclusion and recommendation

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