Background of the study
Whitehead (2002) defined education as the transmission of culture values of the society from one generation to another.
In the same view Bello (2002) defined education as the aggregate of all the processes by means of which a person develops abilities, attitude, and forms of behaviour of positive value in the society in which he lives.
Education can be viewed from the dimension of formal, informal and non – formal education. Complete education cannot be acquired within the classroom only. A large part of education can be acquired from outside the classroom. Such source include the home, peer groups, travels and other non-classroom situations.
Formal education means any form of teaching- learning process, which has a generally accepted and regular set of rules organization and pattern. In order words, formal education means schooling. The formal education is unique in the sense that it has control, curriculum, regular financing, staffing and evaluation of examination.
Information education is an aspect of socialization. This is the process of fitting individuals into an organized way of life and established tradition of a society.
Informal education begins at early childhood and continues throughout life. Unlike formal education, informal education has no organized curriculum, laws, teaching methods, control mechanism, evaluation procedures or specially trained staff. Schools, parent, peers and the media carry on informal education process. Learning takes place mostly through interaction with others in a particular setting.
Non- formal education is the learning of activities and skills outside the formal school system. Like formal education, non-formal education can be deliberately planned, staff and financed.
Business education is a part (specialized education) of the aggregate of formal and non-formal education.
For proper understanding of researcher’s discussion in this paper, it should be noted that in Nigeria, commercial subject or business education or business studies mean the same thing and which term one may wish to call it, is grouped under vocational and technical education curriculum of the Nigeria school system under the 6-3-3-4 system as provided in the national policy on education 1977 revised 1981. Business studies are regarded as a single subject in the pre-vocational group of subjects.
According to Nanassy (2003) business education is an aspect of the total education, which provides students with the necessary skills, knowledge, attitudes and values to enable them enter into various occupational field.
Ulinfun (2001) also defined business education as education for business, or training in business skills, which are required for use in business offices and clerical occupations and business policy analysis.
In Nigeria, business education had a slow start and develop less quickly than other forms of education because the advents of formal education in this country neglect business education entirely.
Even when effort were made to recognized it, the image portrayed was very poor at it because the public saw it as the education meant for the handicapped, the drop-outs, the never do – well and mentally mal –adjusted.
The idea of business education in Nigeria started as far back as 1882 by colonial masters. The main purpose was to get people to interpret the scared book known as Bible, and also people to work as clerks, and interprets of Holy Book, so their education was confined to knowledge and skill such as typewriting and filling, which would achieve these goals.
Training in vocation business studies on what came to be known later as commercial education started about 1930 with the establishment of a clerical training center at Oshogbo in the former in the former western Region, now Osun State. The purpose of the center was to train clerical officers that were badly needed at the time to fill positions in the office.
By 1955, many commercial secondary schools were established in the western region and subject like shorthand, typewriting and business methods etc. were taught.
The awareness and impact of business education to the economy was first mentioned in the Ashby report, the Ashby commission in it report in 1960 noted the imbalance in out educational system and shortage of caliber of workers in our industries and offices. Then he suggested the offering of commercial courses in the schools, which include among others. English, shorthand and typewriting. The report also suggested that the technical institutes should provide full – time post – secondary general commercial course. The purpose for this was then maintained, was to train stenographers and junior clerk for up – grading to more responsible post.
Later the curriculum conferences of 1969 provide the recognition of business education as an indispensable field of study in a developing industrial economy. The recommendation of the curriculum conference led to the development of new business education curriculum in Nigeria, including elementary, secondary technical and university education. The new policy has strong impact on the development of vocational business education for example, business studies is grouped under the pre –vocational subject.
At the junior secondary level, business studies is taught as an integrated subjects, comprising all the vocational business areas, which include five basic subjects, book – keeping, commerce, office practice, shorthand and typewriting.
At the senior secondary school level, however, business subject are allowed to stand on their own as separate subjects. At this level the students move towards a career option, which he is likely to pursue further at the college of technology or polytechnic for a higher professional training or at the university.
The basic objective of business education is preparation for an ultimate occupational choice (pre –vocational training).
At the junior secondary level, the new business curriculum is expected to:
1. Provide the students an introductory material to be covered at a higher level.
2. Build a strong background and help create attitudes towards a selected career option:
3. Help the students develop attitude towards a particular profession and plan for a future career in business
Looking at these objectives, we can therefore observe that the emphasis is laid on primary need for business education for the preparation of students to enter into the business world and to participate actively as producers and or as consumers of goods and service by business.
For these objective to be achieved the business teachers must be effective in the teaching and learning of business studies.
Therefore, for any teaching to be effective both teacher and learner must work in an atmosphere of mutual respect and trust.
Uge (2000) states that a successful or effective teaching should be guided by certain principle. Such as
1. Learning is an active process in which the learner must involve. That is learning is more effective if the learners participate in whatever learning experiences the teacher has chosen.
2. Keen awareness of objectives will sustain interest encourage perseverance. Objective should be clearly stated. The purpose of every teaching is to bring about changes in behaviour; that is to bring learning whatever methods a teacher adopt must awaken desire, stimulate purpose, direct thought and action towards some objectives.
3. The life of the students must serve as a starting point. That is the learning should start from know to the unknown, from simple to complex or from the familiar to the unfamiliar.
4. Teaching aids promote learning. The teacher should endeavor to provide make appropriate use of suitable audio – visual aids. Free use of chalkboard is of immense value. Teacher should make use of illustration; this does not refer only to pictorial images. It includes explanation conveyed through suitable words.
In Mainland Local Government, here are the 8 sample secondary schools. Namely:-
1. Aje Comprehensive Secondary
2. Akoka High School Yaba
3. Birrel Avenue
4. Eletu Odibo Secondary School
5. Herbert McCaulay
6. Lagos City College Sabo Yaba
7. Mobolaji Bank Anthony Secondary School
8. Western College Secondary School
In Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, the teaching and learning of business studies has not begins effective, that is why the researcher took interest in investigating the root cause of ineffective teaching and learning of Business Education.
Statement of the Problem
The National Policy on Education (1981), it is stated that the end of Junior Secondary School, the business studies students must have acquired basic knowledge and develop skills which enable them to further their education to senior secondary school stage so as to complete their six –year secondary education while others expected to go out into the world of work and be employed or self –employed.
The new system aims at minimizing the problem of unemployment and idle school drop – outs. But these well planned programme has been difficult to achieve its aim because of lack of qualify teachers in business education. Other reasons include that the age at which the students complete their Junior Secondary School is tender. They are not exposed to the world of work and can hardly survive in the world of work. There is no adequate time allocated for the teaching of business studies in the school’s timetable.
Also, there are wrong methods of teaching business studies whereby the students end up learning more theory than practical and this hinders acquisition of adequate skill needed. Lack of sustained interest on the part of the students especially in shorthand, lack if adequate office equipment like typewriters, duplicating machines, photocopiers etc. there is also population explosion in our secondary schools, which invariably leads to classroom overcrowd ness. These and other problems have made the teaching and learning of business studies to be ineffective as far as acquisition of technological skills is concerned.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of business studies at the Junior Secondary School in Mainland Local Government. Specifically the study is to:
1. Examine the educational and professional qualifications needed by teachers to excel.
2. Determine the number of periods allocated to business studies on the school timetable.
3. Examine the teaching aids and textbooks use by teachers and students to facilitate the learning and teaching of business studies.
4. Ascertain the adequacy of materials and equipments for the teaching of business studies.
5. Examine the availability of functional libraries.
Significance of the Study
The study is essential for the students, the teachers, the schools, colleges and the ministry of education on how to improve the standard of business education subjects as it affects the secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. Specifically the study:
Enable the students to have positive attitude towards business studies and put more effort in the learning of business studies so as to improve their performance.
It provides the teachers with the necessary ingredients needed for them in order to make the teaching and learning of business studies effectives.
It will enable the school to give the necessary supports such as provision of fund for the effective teaching and learning of business studies.
Finally, it also enables the ministry of education to provide adequate, and relevant instructional text materials for effective instruction in business studies.
Business studies which provide the students the basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to further their education to Secondary Schools has not been effectively taught in Junior Secondary Schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. And this has led to question such as:
1. What are the qualifications required by teachers of business studies.
2. To what extent are the periods allocated to business studies adequate?
3. What are the teaching aids and textbooks needed to facilitate the teaching and learning of business studies?
4. What are the materials and equipment needed for the teaching of business of business studies?
Limitation of the Study[email protected][email protected]