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Problems of Classroom Management in Some Selected Primary Schools in AMAC FCT, Abuja


This quantitative survey research study delved into the topic of classroom management in selected primary schools within the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was designed to gather data from a sample of 120 respondents, comprising teachers and school administrators. The survey instrument aimed to investigate the relationship between various factors such as classroom size, teacher training, disciplinary measures, and resource availability with classroom management issues. Data collection and analysis were conducted using SPSS27, allowing for comprehensive statistical analysis and presentation of the findings. A one-sample t-test was employed to test hypotheses related to classroom size, teacher training, proactive disciplinary measures, and resource inadequacy concerning their impact on classroom management. The results of the study revealed several significant findings. Firstly, there was a significant relationship between classroom size and classroom management problems, indicating that larger class sizes were associated with increased challenges in maintaining an effective learning environment. Secondly, teacher training and experience were found to have a significant influence on effective classroom management practices, emphasizing the importance of ongoing professional development for educators. Additionally, implementing proactive disciplinary measures was shown to reduce disruptions and enhance classroom management, highlighting the efficacy of positive reinforcement strategies. The study’s conclusion aligns with the findings, emphasizing the critical role of teacher training, proactive disciplinary measures, and resource allocation in addressing classroom management challenges. Based on the results, several recommendations are proposed. These include advocating for smaller class sizes to improve teacher-student interactions and learning outcomes, prioritizing ongoing professional development programs for educators to enhance their classroom management skills, implementing proactive disciplinary measures such as positive reinforcement strategies, and investing in infrastructure and resources to create conducive learning environments. In conclusion, this study contributes valuable insights into understanding the factors influencing classroom management in primary schools. The findings underscore the need for comprehensive approaches that consider teacher training, disciplinary strategies, and resource allocation to foster positive learning environments and improve student outcomes. The recommendations put forth can guide educational policymakers, school administrators, and educators in implementing effective strategies to address classroom management challenges and enhance the overall quality of education delivery.




Background to the Study

Classroom management is a critical aspect of education that significantly influences the teaching and learning process (Marzano, 2003). It encompasses various strategies and techniques used by educators to create an environment conducive to learning, maintain discipline, and facilitate academic progress. Effective classroom management is essential for fostering a positive and productive learning environment where students can engage actively in their studies (Rosemund, 2020).

In some selected primary schools within the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria, issues related to classroom management have been identified as significant challenges affecting the quality of education delivery (Makewa et al., 2022). These challenges may include disruptions during lessons, inadequate teacher-student engagement, low academic performance, and a lack of conducive learning environments (Oghuvbu, 2020).

One of the primary goals of classroom management is to create an environment that supports student learning and academic achievement (Wubbels et al., 2021). This involves implementing strategies to promote active student participation, effective communication, and positive teacher-student relationships (Marzano et al., 2021). By addressing these aspects of classroom management, educators can enhance the overall learning experience for their students.

Effective classroom management also plays a crucial role in maintaining discipline within the learning environment (Okoruwa, 2021). Discipline is essential for ensuring that students adhere to established rules and guidelines, which contributes to a safe and orderly classroom atmosphere (Ormerod & Duckworth, 2019). Teachers who employ effective classroom management techniques can minimize disruptions and behavioural issues, allowing for more focused and productive instructional time.

Furthermore, classroom management is closely linked to student engagement and motivation (Jones & Jones, 2022). When students feel supported, respected, and actively involved in their learning process, they are more likely to remain engaged and motivated to succeed academically (Cooney, 2020). Strategies such as differentiated instruction, collaborative learning activities, and meaningful feedback can enhance student engagement and promote a positive learning environment.

In addition to its impact on student behaviour and engagement, effective classroom management is also associated with improved academic outcomes (George, 2020). Studies have shown that well-managed classrooms correlate with higher levels of student achievement and academic success (Izumi & Evers, 2022). By creating an environment that encourages active participation, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills, educators can contribute significantly to students’ academic growth and development.

In essence, classroom management is a multifaceted aspect of education that plays a vital role in shaping the teaching and learning experience. It involves employing strategies and techniques to create a conducive learning environment, maintain discipline, foster student engagement, and enhance academic outcomes. By addressing the challenges associated with classroom management in primary schools within the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria, educators and stakeholders can work towards improving the overall quality of education delivery and promoting positive learning experiences for all students.

Statement of Problem

The challenges evident in classroom management within selected primary schools in AMAC, FCT, Abuja, reveal critical gaps that necessitate immediate attention. Disruptions during lessons significantly impede the teaching and learning process, affecting both teachers’ ability to deliver content effectively and students’ capacity to engage with the material (Oghuvbu, 2020). These disruptions, stemming from various factors such as student behaviour issues and overcrowded classrooms, create an environment that is less conducive to learning (Marzano et al., 2021).

Furthermore, there is a noticeable lack of effective teacher-student engagement, which directly impacts student motivation and participation in classroom activities (Wubbels et al., 2021). Insufficient engagement levels often lead to disinterest, reduced learning outcomes, and decreased overall academic performance among students (Okoruwa, 2021). Understanding the root causes of this lack of engagement and implementing strategies to improve it are imperative to enhance the overall quality of education in these schools.

The quality of the learning environment is another critical concern within these primary schools (Ormerod & Duckworth, 2019). A conducive learning environment encompasses various elements, including adequate resources, appropriate classroom organization, and a supportive social and emotional climate (Jones & Jones, 2022). Insufficient resources, poorly organized classrooms, and a lack of support systems for teachers and students hinder the creation of an optimal learning environment.

Moreover, addressing disciplinary issues and promoting positive behaviour management strategies are paramount (Cooney, 2020). Discipline plays a pivotal role in maintaining order and creating a safe, productive learning atmosphere (George, 2020). However, inconsistent disciplinary practices, unclear expectations, and limited training in behaviour management contribute to ongoing challenges in this area (Izumi & Evers, 2022).

The identified challenges underscore the urgent need for comprehensive interventions and strategies to improve classroom management in primary schools within AMAC, FCT, Abuja. These interventions should encompass teacher training initiatives, provision of adequate resources, implementation of effective behaviour management techniques, and establishment of supportive policies and practices at the school level (Cooney, 2020; Marzano et al., 2021). By addressing these critical gaps, stakeholders can work towards creating a more conducive, engaging, and effective learning environment for primary school students in the region.

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study were to:

  1. Identify the main problems encountered in classroom management within selected primary schools in AMAC, FCT, Abuja.
  2. Examine the factors contributing to these classroom management problems.
  3. Propose recommendations to address the identified issues and enhance classroom management practices in primary schools.

  Research Questions

The following research questions were asked:

  1. What are the primary problems related to classroom management in selected primary schools in AMAC, FCT, Abuja?
  2. What factors contribute to these classroom management problems?
  3. What strategies can be recommended to improve classroom management practices in these primary schools?

Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested:

Null Hypotheses(H0):

  1. There is no significant relationship between classroom size and the level of classroom management problems in selected primary schools in AMAC, FCT, Abuja.
  2. Teacher training and experience do not significantly influence effective classroom management practices in primary schools.
  3. Implementing proactive disciplinary measures cannot reduce disruptions and enhance classroom management in primary schools.

Alternative Hypotheses(H1):

  1. There is a significant relationship between classroom size and the level of classroom management problems in selected primary schools in AMAC, FCT, Abuja.
  2. Teacher training and experience significantly influence effective classroom management practices in primary schools.
  3. Implementing proactive disciplinary measures can reduce disruptions and enhance classroom management in primary schools.

 Significance of the Study

The significance of studying the problems of classroom management in selected primary schools within the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, cannot be overstated. This research holds profound importance for various stakeholders in the education sector, including policymakers, school administrators, teachers, parents, and education experts.

Firstly, understanding the challenges faced in classroom management is crucial for improving the overall quality of education delivery in primary schools. By identifying specific problems such as disruptions during lessons, lack of teacher-student engagement, and disciplinary issues, educators and policymakers can develop targeted interventions and strategies to address these issues effectively. Improved classroom management practices contribute to creating a more conducive learning environment, enhancing teaching effectiveness, and ultimately leading to better academic outcomes for students.

Secondly, the findings of this study can inform policy decisions and resource allocation in education. By highlighting the factors contributing to classroom management problems, policymakers can prioritize investments in areas such as teacher training, infrastructure development, and behaviour management programs. This targeted approach can lead to more efficient use of resources and improved overall school performance.

Thirdly, addressing classroom management challenges has a direct impact on teacher morale and job satisfaction. Teachers who struggle with classroom management issues may experience increased stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction. By providing support, training, and resources to help teachers effectively manage their classrooms, schools can create a more positive work environment that promotes teacher well-being and retention.

Furthermore, improving classroom management practices contributes to creating a positive school culture and fostering a sense of community within schools. When classrooms are well-managed, students feel safe, respected, and motivated to learn. Positive behaviour management strategies promote a culture of mutual respect, responsibility, and cooperation among students, leading to a more harmonious and productive learning environment.

Additionally, the study’s findings can serve as a basis for further research and academic inquiry in the field of education. By documenting and analyzing specific classroom management challenges in primary schools within AMAC, FCT, Abuja, researchers can contribute to the body of knowledge on effective teaching and learning practices. This can lead to the development of new theories, methodologies, and interventions aimed at continuously improving educational outcomes.

Scope of the Study

This study focused on a selected number of primary schools within the geographical area of the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria. The research was conducted to understand the problems of classroom management as perceived by teachers, students, and school administrators in these specific schools during the period of study.

Operational Definition of Terms

Classroom Management: The process of creating and maintaining a conducive learning environment within a classroom setting, including behaviour management, instructional strategies, and student engagement techniques.

Primary Schools: Educational institutions typically cater to children between the ages of 5 to 11 years, focusing on foundational education.

AMAC (Abuja Municipal Area Council): A local government area in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria, comprising various districts and communities.

Teacher-Student Engagement: The level of interaction, involvement, and communication between teachers and students during the teaching and learning process.

Academic Performance: The measurable outcomes of students’ learning and achievements in academic subjects, often assessed through examinations, tests, and evaluations.

Conducive Learning Environment: A physical and psychological setting that promotes active learning, collaboration, and positive academic experiences for students.

Disruptions: Any behaviours or events that interfere with the smooth flow of teaching and learning activities within the classroom.

Proactive Disciplinary Measures: Preemptive strategies and interventions designed to prevent and address behavioural issues and maintain discipline in the classroom setting.



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